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Thermal Behavior Analysis of Lithium Ion Cells used in EVs and HEVs

A R A I-Aatmesh Jain
College of Engineering-Shubham Gaurishankar Lonkar
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The batteries for electric vehicles (EV) generate heat during discharging cycles. During these rapid discharge cycles the temperature of cell may increase above allowable limits. The high temperature of lithium ion cell is the primary factor affecting the cell performance and life. To develop efficient cooling mechanism for batteries, thermal behavior of secondary cell is must know. In this research, experimentally the thermal behavior analysis of cylindrical lithium ion cells at constant current discharge cycles with different current rates for each cycle is evaluated. The experiments were carried out at three discharge cycles of 1C, 2C and 3C rates and two battery chemistries namely NiMnCo and NiCoAlare considered for analysis. The instantaneous temperature of cell was measured using thermal imager and increase in overall cell surface temperature at different discharge rates, for entire discharging interval has been studied. An empirical relation for average surface temperature of cell at different current rates and depth of discharge has been obtained which may find application in defining the discharge algorithms. The rates of internal heat generation in both…
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Development of Battery Management System for Hybrid Electric Two Wheeler

A R A I-Kiran Wani, Sanjay A Patil
Automotive Research Association of India-Manish Ingale
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) will become imperative to meet the emission challenges. HEV have two power sources-fossil fuels driven I.C. Engine and the battery based drive. Battery technologies have seen a tremendous development, and therefore HEV’s have been benefited. Even as the battery capacities have improved, maintaining and monitoring their health has been a challenge. This research paper uses open-source platform to build a BMS. The flexibility in the implementation of the system has helped in the rapid prototyping of the system. The BMS system was evaluated on a scaled-down electric toy car for its performance and sustainability. The BMS was evaluated for reverse polarity, protection against overcharge, short-circuit, deep discharge and overload on lead acid battery. It also includes temperature monitoring of the batteries. This proposed system is evaluated on the in-house HEV two-wheeler. The initial results are promising. A dedicated android smartphone application is developed for BMS which continuously monitors battery voltage, current, battery temperature, battery state of charge (SOC) and battery health. The system measures current, voltage and temperature…
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Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction of BRT - Premium Segment Bus

A R A I-Pradeep Jawale, Nagesh Karanth
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Urbanisation has led to an increased need for mobility in public transportation. Sensing the unfolding worrisome scenario, many countries have taken up different mass rapid transit solutions to alleviate the problem and restore the free flowing traffic. BRT should have been the logical choice particularly considering the lower capital costs involved and faster implementation. Comprehensibly the expectations of this class of vehicles will be high in term of quality and comfort to the passengers. Level of vibration and noise is an important indicator to evaluate vehicle's ride comfort. The challenges are to design the high powered Powertrain and Air Conditioning system nonetheless low interior noise, vibration and harshness correspondents to personal cars.This paper is an invention of, development work done in interior noise refinement of a bus. A prototype bus manufactured to meet all the requirement of BRT - premium segment urban bus. The prototype was almost meeting the entire required specifications, excluding interior noise and vibrations. The rear zone of the interior was the major concern of NVH levels, which demands to carry out…
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Design and Development of Tunable Exhaust Muffler for Race Car

A R A I-Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
ARAI Academy-Sankalp Talegaonkar
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The Exhaust Noise is one of the major noise pollutants. It is well-known that for higher noise reduction, the engine has to bear high back pressure. For a race car, back-pressure plays a major role in engine's performance characteristics.For a given condition of engine rpm & load, conventional muffler has a fixed value of back-pressure and noise attenuation. Better acceleration requires low back-pressure, but the exhaust noise should also be less than the required (Norm) value (110 dBA). This contradicting condition is achieved here by using a ‘Butterfly Valve’ in this novel exhaust muffler. The butterfly valve assumes 2 positions i.e. fully open & fully closed. When the valve is fully closed, the noise reduction will be higher, but the back-pressure will also shoot up. When open, noise reduction will be less and so the back-pressure. So, when better performance is required, the valve is opened and back-pressure is reduced.The muffler is designed for a 4 cylinder 600 cc engine. The sound transmission loss (STL), which is the measure of effectiveness of the muffler, is…
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Tactile Sensor Array Design for Triple Seat Detection and Control

A R A I-Sanjay A Patil
Tata Elxsi-Eeshan Bashir
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
In the field of automotive if a vehicle is designed for a particular per person riding capacity considering the aspects of safety, design and power exceeding those limits puts the driver and pillion riders at considerable risk. With a step ahead in this paper we are trying to detect and limit the number of persons sitting on two wheeler. As per the traffic rules in India the maximum number of persons cannot exceed two, apart from the driver only one pillion rider can be carried in behind while driving. Despite of the ban, driver carries more than a single person. Two Pillion riding is also a root of a lot of accidents happening in two wheelers. To make the detection process effective, robust and cost effective a new sensor design was to be put forward.There is no sensor available that could detect the differential load over the larger area at effective cost. To cater to this problem Bubble based tactile based sensors were developed and checked for this application. An array of Bubble based Tactile…
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Predicting and Optimizing CNG Vehicle Performance on Chassis Dynamometer through 1D Simulation by using Vehicle Performance Algorithm

A R A I-Mohammad Jamadar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, S D Rairikar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
VIT University / A R A I Academy-Rahul R Kartha
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission.In this case study, simulation model of a CNG, LCV is used to analyze the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle. The methodology of optimization of transmission ratio includes the design and mathematical calculation of transmission ratios. The values of transmission ratios are obtained by theoretical mathematical calculations and the second category of ratios are based on the bench marked values from different products.…
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Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy for Used Oil Analysis

A R A I-Asmita Manwatkar, Prasad S Phale, Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Used oil analysis plays an important role in the field of engine development, considering that it can give brief idea about performance of lubricant/ oil being used, its compatibility with the system under considerations. At present, regular testing is done like elemental analysis using Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) which can give idea about wear elements and additive elements. But it does not give information on morphological characterization of particles.In present work, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy technique with EDAX detector is used for characterizing the used oil. Oil is filtered on suitable paper and the particles collected on paper are analyzed. This gives the information on morphology and size of particles, their elemental analysis and mapping so that the sources can be judged. Size of wear metal particle is very important factor as even few bigger size particles are more detrimental than large number of smaller particles. Another advantage is that small quantity of oil is required for analysis and this technique can be used at regular intervals in engine testing program. Case study of this…
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Contribution of Organic and Elemental Carbon Fractions in Indian in-Used Vehicle-Exhaust Particulate Matter

A R A I-Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M R Saraf
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Airborne particulate matter (PM) in an urban atmosphere is a result of contribution from diverse range of source including domestic, industry and vehicles. PM emission is a matter a concern due to its multiple impacts on public health, air quality, and global climate. Ever increasing number of vehicles plying on the road is considered to be one of the major sources of PM. Particles in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust carry distinctive combinations of certain chemical compounds. Prominence of their chemical signature in ambient particulate matter can be considered as a direct indication of their relative importance as sources of emissions.In this study, Chemical speciation data of vehicle exhaust PM is analyzed and vehicle category wise distribution of carbon fractions is presented for different engine technologies and fuel types. Thermal/Optical Carbon Analysis technique, which based on the preferential oxidation of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) at different temperatures, is utilized for analysis of exhaust particulate matter. Carbon fractions, based on temperature, like OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4 and EC1, EC2 and EC3 are separately…
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Use of Software/ Hardware-in-Loop Technique for Development of Semi-Active Suspension

J Kale
A R A I-Medha Santosh Jambhale, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle's suspension system is the basic component which decides its dynamic performance. It is designed to separate the vehicle body and its passengers or payload from vibrations arising due to road disturbances, at the same time to ensure that the tires stay in adequate contact with the road surface. Challenges in suspension design many a time's leads in a compromise between the conflicting demands of ride comfort and road holding. Vehicles having soft suspension isolate the vehicle body from the higher frequencies in suspension but reduce the ability of the dampers to control the wheel movements which leads to poor road holding. Conversely, hard suspension provides more road holding but transmits more of the suspension movement to the body; in turn provide a less comfortable ride.The development of active/ semi active suspension has addressed both these needs and provides optimum level of ride comfort and road holding which results in the safety and driving pleasure.This paper explains the development of a semi- active suspension control. The veDYNA vehicle model duly validated with road data…
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Injection Strategies, Optimization and Simulation Techniques on DI CNG Technology

A R A I-Sukrut S Thipse, Shailesh B Sonawane, Ashwin F D' Souza, S D Rairikar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, Neelkanth V Marathe
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
CNG has long since been established as a front runner amongst other available alternative fuels. In India, its infrastructure and penetration far exceeds others. While other, more efficient alternatives are been researched, CNG has established itself in the market as the alternative fuel of choice for majority of Indians. CNG technology has evolved itself from the basic venturi system to the more efficient sequential injection system nowadays. While the efficiency of an engine using sequential injection CNG has increased, the inherent problem with respect to lower volumetric efficiency and hence less power still persists.Direct injection CNG technology is seen as the solution to this age old problem. In the older days, the lack of technological expertise in SI direct fuel injection provided a stumbling block for development of direct gas injection. But with the surge in technological advancement lately, especially in the gasoline direct injection area has opened new avenues for development of gas direct injection technology. DI CNG technology has the benefits of increased power, improved BSFC and lower emissions. Further the challenges in…
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