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Railway Fastener Positioning Method Based on Improved Census Transform

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Northeast Electric Power University, China-Chunming Wu, Hongkuo Zheng
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0011
Published 2018-10-31 by SAE International in United States
In view of the fact that the current positioning methods of railway fasteners are easily affected by illumination intensity, bright spots, and shadows, a positioning method with relative grayscale invariance is proposed. The median filter is used to remove the noise in order to reduce the adverse effects on the subsequent processing results, and the baffle seat edge features are enhanced by improved Census transform. The mean-shift clustering algorithm is used to classify the edges to weaken the interference by short lines. Finally, the Hough transform is used to quickly extract the linear feature of the baffle seat edge and achieve the exact position of the fastener with the prior knowledge. Experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately locate and have good adaptability under different illumination conditions, and the position accuracy is increased by 4.3% and 8%, respectively, in sunny and rainy days.
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Carbon Monoxide Density Pattern Mapping from Recreational Boat Testing

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Collision Safety Engineering, L.C., USA-Mark Warner
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0008
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas can cause health risks for users of recreational boats and watercraft. Activities such as waterskiing, wakeboarding, tubing, and wakesurfing primarily utilize gasoline engine-driven vessels which produce CO as a combustion by-product. Recent watersports trends show an increase in popularity of activities which take place closer to the stern of the boat (such as wakesurfing) as compared to traditional waterskiing and wakeboarding. Advancements in gas emissions treatment in marine engine exhaust system designs have reduced risks for CO exposure in some boats. This article presents results from on-water testing of three recreational boats, reports average and maximum values of CO levels under various conditions, and exhibits mapping of the density of CO relative to the stern of the test vessels.
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The Placement of Digitized Objects in a Point Cloud as a Photogrammetric Technique

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

ARCCA, Inc.-Shawn Harrington, Gabriel Lebak
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0007
Published 2018-08-08 by SAE International in United States
The frequency of video-capturing collision events from surveillance systems are increasing in reconstruction analyses. The video that has been provided to the investigator may not always include a clear perspective of the relevant area of interest. For example, surveillance video of an incident may have captured a pre- or post-incident perspective that, while failing to capture the precise moment when the pedestrian was struck by a vehicle, still contains valuable information that can be used to assist in reconstructing the incident. When surveillance video is received, a quick and efficient technique to place the subject object or objects into a three-dimensional environment with a known rate of error would add value to the investigation. In addition, once the objects have been placed into the three-dimensional environment, the investigator would then be able to observe the physical evidence and environment from any perspective, including viewing and measuring what cannot be seen in the video perspective. In this research, the proposed photogrammetric technique of visually placing objects within three-dimensional laser scans will be evaluated. This research aims…
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Detection of Lane-Changing Behavior Using Collaborative Representation Classifier-Based Sensor Fusion

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Michigan-Dearborn, USA-Jun Gao, Yi Lu Murphey
Wuhan University of Technology, China-Honghui Zhu
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0010
Published 2018-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Sideswipe accidents occur primarily when drivers attempt an improper lane change, drift out of lane, or the vehicle loses lateral traction. In this article, a fusion approach is introduced that utilizes data from two differing modality sensors (a front-view camera and an onboard diagnostics (OBD) sensor) for the purpose of detecting driver’s behavior of lane changing. For lane change detection, both feature-level fusion and decision-level fusion are examined by using a collaborative representation classifier (CRC). Computationally efficient detection features are extracted from distances to the detected lane boundaries and vehicle dynamics signals. In the feature-level fusion, features generated from two differing modality sensors are merged before classification, while in the decision-level fusion, the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory is used to combine the classification outcomes from two classifiers, each corresponding to one sensor. The results indicated that the feature-level fusion outperformed the decision-level fusion, and the introduced fusion approach using a CRC performs significantly better in terms of detection accuracy, in comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers.
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Validation of Crush Energy Calculation Methods for Use in Accident Reconstructions by Finite Element Analysis

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

DENSO Corporation, Japan-Hisashi Kinoshita
Nagoya University, Japan-Shusuke Numata, Koji Mizuno, Daisuke Ito, Dai Okumura
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0009
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
The crush energy is a key parameter to determine the delta-V in accident reconstructions. Since an accurate car crush profile can be obtained from 3D scanners, this research aims at validating the methods currently used in calculating crush energy from a crush profile. For this validation, a finite element (FE) car model was analyzed using various types of impact conditions to investigate the theory of energy-based accident reconstruction. Two methods exist to calculate the crush energy: the work based on the barrier force and the work based on force calculated by the vehicle acceleration times the vehicle mass. We show that the crush energy calculated from the barrier force was substantially larger than the internal energy calculated from the FE model. Whereas the crush energy calculated from the vehicle acceleration was comparable to the internal energy of the FE model. In full frontal impact simulations, the energy of approach factor (EAF) has a linear relation with the residual crush, which had been validated in previous experimental studies. In our study using FE analysis, we found…
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