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The Accuracy of an Optimized, Practical Close-Range Photogrammetry Method for Vehicular Modeling

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Dial Engineering-Mu-Hua Cheng
Lightpoint Scientific, LLC-Louis R. Peck
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1462
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Three targeted vehicles of varying size were measured using an optimized, practical photogrammetry technique and the results were compared to measurements acquired via total station. The photogrammetry method included the use of a field-calibrated DSLR camera equipped with a fixed 20 mm lens, retroreflective targets sized for vehicular modeling, and a CNC-machined scale bar. Eight photographs were taken from proper angles and processed using a commercially available photogrammetry package. This data was merged with the total station data using a cloud-to-cloud registration process for point-to-point comparison of positional data. The average residual between corresponding photogrammetry and total station points was 1.7 mm (N = 258, SD = 0.8 mm) with a 95% confidence limit of 3.1 mm. Considering this low residual, one of the sample vehicles was re-measured using a high accuracy FaroArm for comparison to the photogrammetry technique. The average residual between corresponding photogrammetry and FaroArm points was 1.2 mm (N = 83, SD = 0.56 mm) with a 95% confidence limit of 2.1 mm. This research shows photogrammetry can be highly accurate and…
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Influence of Pre-impact Pedestrian Posture on Lower Extremity Kinematics in Vehicle Collisions

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Toyota Motor Corporation-Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Yuichi Kitagawa
Tsinghua University-Jisi Tang, Qing Zhou, Bingbing Nie
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1507
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed. Pedestrian in walking posture exhibited larger knee bending angle (40% for ipsilateral knee joint) and pelvic rotation angle (27.5% for Z-direction pelvis rotation angle) with less constraint due to isolated single-leg interaction with vehicle and nonplanar characteristic from the leg swing. The walking posture increased the injury risk of soft connection tissue about 20-30%…
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Investigation of Driver Lane Keeping Behavior in Normal Driving based on Naturalistic Driving Study Data

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

TEMA-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech.-Taylor Johnson, Rong Chen, Hampton C. Gabler
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1449
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can detect an impending road departure and deliver an alert to allow the driver to steer back to the lane. LDW has great potential to reduce the number of road departure crashes, but the effectiveness is highly dependent upon driver acceptance. If the driver perceives there is little danger after receiving an alert, the driver may become annoyed and deactivate the system. Most current LDW systems rely heavily upon distance to lane boundary (DTLB) in the decision to deliver an alert. There is early evidence that in normal driving DTLB may be only one of a host of other cues which drivers use in lane keeping and in their perception of lane departure risk. A more effective threshold for LDW could potentially be delivered if there was a better understanding of this normal lane keeping behavior. The objective of this paper is to investigate the lane keeping behavior of drivers in normal driving. The study will be based upon data extracted from the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) Naturalistic Driving…
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Fire Protection in Military Ground Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Alion Science and Technology-Steven E. Hodges
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1404
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Fire protection, active and passive, has been, and is, an important area of concern during the design, development and deployment phases for all modern ground vehicles. All US military vehicles carry handheld fire extinguishers, and many tactical and all combat vehicles have automatic fire protection systems that protect the crew, engine, and in some cases, external components such as fuel tanks and wheels, from potentially catastrophic combat events involving fire. Vehicle designs also mitigate fire hazards by separating the vehicle occupants from the most flammable materials, e.g., fuel and ammunition, as much as practical. Explosion protection of the crew and passengers in military vehicles is a unique application with unique requirements that must balance suppression actions with safety limits. This paper presents an overview of general guidelines related to protecting military ground vehicle crews from injury due to fire, and lessons learned from the experiences of fielded systems.
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The Wagging Foot of Uncertainty: Data Collection and Reduction Methods for Examining Foot Pedal Behavior in Naturalistic Driving

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Touchstone Evaluations Inc.-Linda Angell
Toyota Collaborative Safety Research Center-Kazutoshi Ebe, James Foley
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1526
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Pedal misapplications may be rare, but the outcomes can be tragic. A naturalistic driving study with 30 drivers was conducted to gain a better understanding of foot pedal behaviors. Foot movements were observed from the moment subjects entered and positioned themselves in their vehicle, and continued through starting the ignition, shifting into gear, accelerating to driving speed, and finally, resting their foot after parking the vehicle. A coding methodology was developed to categorize the various foot movements and behaviors. Over 3,300 startup and parking sequences were coded. This paper describes the unique challenges involved in classifying foot movements and behaviors when drivers’ intentions are not known. For example, hesitant or interrupted foot movements often occurred when a driver was transitioning from a gas pedal press to a brake pedal press. Such behaviors required definitions beyond what might be typically considered a “pedal error” (e.g., pressing the wrong pedal, or pressing both pedals simultaneously). Over 650 back-pedal hooks (foot catching the underside or side of the brake pedal when transitioning from accelerator), incorrect trajectories, uncertain foot…
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A Semi-Automated Approach to Real World Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Using a Generic Simplified Vehicle Buck Model

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Wake Forest Univ.-Derek Jones, James Gaewsky, Ashley Weaver, Joel Stitzel
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1488
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Computational finite element (FE) modeling of real world motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is valuable for analyzing crash-induced injury patterns and mechanisms. Due to unavailability of detailed modern FE vehicle models, a simplified vehicle model (SVM) based on laser scans of fourteen modern vehicle interiors was used. A crash reconstruction algorithm was developed to semi-automatically tune the properties of the SVM to a particular vehicle make and model, and subsequently reconstruct a real world MVC using the tuned SVM. The required algorithm inputs are anthropomorphic test device position data, deceleration crash pulses from a specific New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test, and vehicle interior property ranges. A series of automated geometric transformations and five LSDyna positioning simulations were performed to match the FE Hybrid III’s (HIII) position within the SVM to reported data. Once positioned, a baseline simulation using the crash test pulse was created. A Latin hypercube sample space (9 variables) of 120 simulations was created to vary occupant safety and restraint properties. Sprague and Geers magnitude and phase error factors were used to…
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An Approach for the Development and the Validation of Generic Simulation Models for Crash-Compatibility Investigations

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Technische Universitat Munchen-Emad Sadeghipour, Erich Josef Wehrle, Markus Lienkamp
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1373
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Global emission targets and high fuel costs encourage manufacturers to produce ultralight vehicles. This and the low range of electric cars have resulted in new vehicle concepts and reuse of the quadricycles classification for microcars in Europe.
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