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The Effect of Age on Fat and Bone Properties along the Vertebral Spine

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Michigan-Chantal Parenteau, Sven Holcombe, Peng Zhang, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Stewart Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1244
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The human body changes as it becomes older. The automotive safety community has been interested in understanding the effect of aging on restraint performance. Recent research has been focused on assessing the structural and material changes associated with age. In this study, structural tissue distribution was determined using the computed tomography (CT) scan data of more than 19,000 patients, aged 16 and up. The data consisted of subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, visceral fat cross-sectional area, and trabecular bone density taken at each vertebral level. The data was quantified as a function of five age groups with the youngest group defined as 16-29 years old and the oldest group as 75 and up. An additional analysis stratified on gender was carried out.Overall, visceral fat increased with age. Compared to the 16-29 group, the visceral fat measured at the L1 level was 1.97 in the 30-44 group, 2.55 in the 45-59 group, 3.33 in the 60-74 group and 3.21 times greater in the 75+ group. Subcutaneous fat also increased with age up to the 60-74-year-old group. The…
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The Front Center Airbag

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

General Motors Company-Scott D. Thomas, Jacqueline E. Brown
Takata-Richard A. Wiik
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1156
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
General Motors and the Takata Corporation have worked together to bring to production a new, industry first technology called the Front Center Airbag which is being implemented on General Motors' 2013 Midsize Crossover Vehicles. This paper reviews field data, describes the hardware, and presents occupant test data to demonstrate in-position performance in far side impacts.The Front Center Airbag is an airbag that mounts to the inboard side of the driver front seat. It has a tubular cushion structure, and it deploys between the front seating positions in far side impacts, near side impacts and rollovers, with the cushion positioning itself adjacent the driver occupant's head and torso. This paper includes pictures of the technology along with a basic description of the design.In-position occupant performance is also described and illustrated with several examples. Single occupant and two front occupant far side impact test data are included, both with and without the airbag present. Resulting performance differences are discussed leading to the following test observations: a) In a far side impact with a single driver occupant present,…
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Full-Scale Burn Test of a 1992 Compact Pick-up Truck

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Exponent-Jeff D. Colwell, Michael E. Cundy
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0209
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A full-scale burn test of a 1992 compact pick-up truck was conducted to evaluate how temperature distributions changed over time, the manner in which the fire spread, and how burn patterns produced during the fire correlated with important characteristics of the fire such as the area of origin. After the fire was initiated on the lower portion of the dashboard of the test vehicle, it spread locally to nearby dashboard material and, at the same time, developed a strong temperature gradient from the ceiling to the floor. Once the ceiling temperature reached about 600°C, the rate of fire spread increased and, within 1 minute, the passenger compartment was fully involved. Initiation of the engine compartment fire, which occurred about 4 minutes after the passenger compartment was fully involved, was consistent with fire spread through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct that passed through the passenger's side of the bulkhead. Instead of spreading to nearby combustibles on the passenger's side of the engine compartment, the fire spread to the driver's side of the engine…
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Flex-PLI Application to High-Bumper Vehicles - Optimization of Supplemental Weight

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Nissan Motor Company, Ltd.-Yoshiko Kawabe, Chinmoy Pal, Hiroyuki Okuyama, Tomosaburo Okabe
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0215
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) was developed to evaluate the risk of pedestrian lower extremity injuries. However, it has been pointed out that the post-crash kinematics of the Flex-PLI differs from those of a human body when it is hit by high-bumper vehicles. This paper describes the feasibility of applying the Flex-PLI to a wide range of vehicle types by adding a supplemental weight. The following aspects are discussed in this regard: A human body finite element (FE) model analysis shows that the upper body of the Flex-PLI is not involved in tibia and knee ligament injury indexes in the first contact with a high-bumper vehicle.A rigid bar model is introduced and its rotational energy ratio is formulated. The rotational energy ratio is employed to evaluate the post-crash kinematics of the Flex-PLI and a human leg model.The feasibility of adding a supplemental weight to the Flex-PLI with regard to the bumper height is discussed.
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The Accuracy and Sensitivity of 2005 to 2008 Toyota Corolla Event Data Recorders in Low-Speed Collisions

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

MEA Forensic Engineers & Scientists-Craig Wilkinson, Jonathan Lawrence, Tim Nelson, James Bowler
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1268
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Collision related data stored in the airbag control modules (ACM's) of Toyota vehicles can provide useful information to collision investigators, including both front and rear collision severity. Previous studies of ACM's from other manufacturers found that the devices underestimated the actual speed change in low speed frontal collisions. To quantify the accuracy and sensitivity of select 2005 to 2008 Toyota ACM's, in-vehicle crash tests and linear sled tests were performed in both front and rear impact orientations. A 2005 Toyota Corolla with five extra ACM's mounted in the right front seat position underwent a series of vehicle-to-barrier collisions with speed changes of up to 10 km/h. Next, the same six Toyota ACMs underwent a range of crash pulses using a linear sled. In all in-vehicle tests, the speed change reported by the ACM underestimated the actual speed change for frontal collisions, and overestimated the actual speed change for rear-end collisions. The speed change underestimates ranged from 1.3 to 2.6 km/h and the speed change overestimates ranged from 0.6 to 2.2 km/h. The magnitude of the…
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Forward Collision Warning Timing in Near Term Applications

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Chrysler Group LLC-Guy S. Nusholtz, Timothy P. Hsu, Manuel A. Gracián, Jesús A. Prado, Rebeca Cedeño, Nadia M. Santillán, David Herrera
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0727
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Forward Collision Warning (FCW) is a system intended to warn the driver in order to reduce the number of rear end collisions or reduce the severity of collisions. However, it has the potential to generate driver annoyances and unintended consequences due to high ineffectual (false or unnecessary) alarms with a corresponding reduction in the total system effectiveness. The ineffectual alarm rate is known to be closely associated with the “time to issue warning.” This results in a conflicting set of requirements. The earlier the time the warning is issued, the greater probability of reducing the severity of the impact or eliminating it. However, with an earlier warning time there is a greater chance of ineffectual warning, which could result in significant annoyance, frequent complaints and the driver's disengagement of the FCW. Disengaging the FCW eliminates its potential benefits. A shorter warning time may be beneficial; it would reduce ineffectual alarm rates and thus reduce driver's annoyance level, increasing the driver's confidence in the system, which leads to improve overall system efficiency. To use a shorter…
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Occupant Rollover Protection in Motorsports

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

NASCAR-John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0800
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Over the last twenty years, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) racing series. While proper occupant protection requires both occupant restraint and preservation of sufficient occupant survival space, this study is focused mainly on the latter of these two necessities. The NASCAR tubular vehicle chassis has evolved through the years to provide improved protection for the driver in rollover incidents. The chassis has continued to progress over time to improve its strength as unique crashes sometimes highlighted opportunities for advancement. Recent enhancements tested using computer modeling, quasi-static testing, and full scale drop tests have improved the roof structure of the stock car chassis. These improvements have been incorporated into the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup and Nationwide Series cars.
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Idealized Vehicle Crash Test Pulses for Advanced Batteries

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Chrysler Group LLC-Guy S. Nusholtz, Yibing Shi, Lan Xu
Ford Motor Co.-Saeed Barbat, Mark Mehall, William Stanko, Para Weerappuli
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0764
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports a study undertaken by the Crash Safety Working Group (CSWG) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) to determine generic acceleration pulses for testing and evaluating advanced batteries subjected to inertial loading for application in electric passenger vehicles. These pulses were based on characterizing vehicle acceleration time histories from standard laboratory vehicle crash tests. Crash tested passenger vehicles in the United States vehicle fleet of the model years 2005-2009 were used in this study.Crash test data, in terms of acceleration time histories, were collected from various crash modes conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during their New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) evaluations, and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). These crash modes included: Frontal rigid flat barrier test at 35 mph (NHTSA NCAP), 40% offset frontal deformable barrier test at 40 mph (IIHS), Side moving deformable barrier test at 38 mph (NHTSA side NCAP), Side oblique pole test at 20 mph (US FMVSS 214/NHTSA side NCAP), and Rear 70%…
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Full-Scale Burn Test of a 2001 Full-Size Pickup Truck

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Exponent Inc.-Jeff D. Colwell
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0214
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Temperature measurements during a full-scale burn test of a 2001 full-size pickup truck showed that the fire progressed in distinct stages in both the engine and passenger compartments. Although the fire started in the engine compartment and had a relatively long growth period, when a localized area reached about 700°C, a distinct transition occurred where the rate of fire spread increased, leading to full involvement of all engine compartment combustibles. As the engine compartment became fully involved, a hot gas layer then accumulated at the ceiling of the passenger compartment, producing a strong vertical temperature gradient. When the temperature at the ceiling reached about 600°C, another distinct transition occurred where the rate of fire spread increased, leading to full involvement of the passenger compartment. The highest temperature during the test occurred within the engine compartment in an area that had the greatest fuel load, and not the area of origin. Although oxidation and melted aluminum patterns were created during the fire, neither was useful in identifying the area of origin of the fire.
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Examination of a Properly Restrained Motorsport Occupant

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

NASCAR-John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Tandelta-John Melvin
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0804
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the implementation and advancement of head and neck restraints (HNR), minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy-absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper summarizes three non-injury case studies of actual on-track incidents, including the acceleration pulses, principal direction of force, restraint systems used and driver anthropometry information. Also discussed are the NASCAR personal safety equipment requirements as well as frontal, oblique and side sled testing data of similar input acceleration magnitudes for the Hybrid III (H-III) fiftieth percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD).
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