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ERRATUM: The Application of Control and Wheel Torque Allocation Techniques to Driving Modes for Fully Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Univ. of Bath/Univ. of Surrey-Andrew Pennycott
Univ. of Surrey-Leonardo De Novellis, Aldo Sorniotti, Patrick Gruber
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0085.01
Published 2014-11-01 by SAE International in United States
The previously published equation found on page 492 contains an error which is corrected in the erratum.
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Study on Analysis of Input Loads to Motorcycle Frames in Rough Road Running

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Honda R&D (India) Pvt. Ltd.-Keita Sakurada
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Kazuhiro Ito, Yoshitaka Tezuka, Atsushi Hoshino
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-32-0021
Published 2014-11-11 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we developed a simulation method for rough road running condition to reproduce the behaviors of a vehicle body and to precisely estimate the input loads to the frame.We designed the simulation method focusing on a front fork model and a rider model optimized for this type of analysis. In the suspension model development, we conducted detailed measurement of the suspension characteristics on a test bench. Based on the yielded results, the friction force, as well as the spring reaction force and the damping force, was reproduced in the suspension model. The friction of the suspension varies depending on the magnitude of the reaction force associated with bending and this effect was also implemented in the model.Regarding the rider model, the actual behavior of a rider was investigated through the recorded motion video data and used to define the necessary degrees of freedom. Based on this investigation, the degree of freedom of three, i.e. vertical, longitudinal and forward leaning motions, was adopted to the rider model. In addition, the model was designed assuming…
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Study of Effects of Residual Stress on Natural Frequency of Motorcycle Brake Discs

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yoshihiro Nakagawa, Shinya Takahashi, Mikihito Masaki, Ranju Imao
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-32-0053
Published 2014-11-11 by SAE International in United States
In brake squeal analyses using FE models, minimizing the discrepancies in vibration characteristics between the measurement and the simulation is a key issue for improving its reproducibility.The discrepancies are generally adjusted by the shape parameters and/or material properties applied to the model. However, the discrepancy cannot be easily adjusted, especially, for the vibration characteristic of the disc model of a motorcycle.One of the factors that give a large impact on this discrepancy is a thermal history of the disc. That thermal history includes the one experienced in manufacturing process.In this paper, we examine the effects of residual stress on the natural frequency of motorcycle discs. The residual stress on the disc surface was measured by X-ray stress measurement method. It was followed by an eigenvalue analysis. In this analysis, we developed a unique method in which the residual stress was substituted by thermal stress. Using this method, the discrepancy between measurement and calculation of the natural frequency was reduced from ±5.2% to ±1.3%. In further study on the relationship between stress distribution and natural frequency,…
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Studies of Shimmy Phenomenon by Statistical Approaches

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Kenichi Morimoto, Kenichi Tanaka
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-32-0018
Published 2014-11-11 by SAE International in United States
There have been a number of attempts to clarify the relationship between motorcycle specifications and shimmy phenomenon. Some of such efforts are based on equations of motion. The methods used in those efforts are suitable for analyzing motions in a fundamental structure. However, when the degree of freedom is large, it is extremely difficult to deliver an equation of motion. Therefore, a practical method cannot be found generally when applying the methods employing equations of motion.We also conducted the analysis of shimmy using multi-body dynamics simulation. The yielded results were useful only for clarifying the differences in shimmy levels among motorcycles. However, they were not helpful to understand the relationships between specifications and shimmy phenomenon.In this study, we focused clarifying these relationships and we took four study steps shown below: 1Narrowing down the motorcycle specifications affecting shimmy2Determining physical parameters influential to shimmy3Investigating how a change of physical parameters affects shimmy using simplified model4Analyzing how the changes of motorcycle specifications affect the shimmyFollowing these steps, we clarified the relationships between motorcycle's specifications and shimmy by using…
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Oil Flow Simulation Based on CFD for Reducing Agitation Torque of Ball Bearings

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

NSK Ltd.-Yingyi Wen, Shunichi Oshima
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2850
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Agitation torque associated with oil lubricant is one important factor of torque loss in bearings under sufficient lubricating conditions. So far, efforts on reducing agitation torque were taken mostly by means of conventional experimental trials. Aiming for speedy, low-cost development, a calculation program for predicting the amount of agitation torque and oil distribution tendency in rolling bearings has been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.At first, since rolling bearings are axially symmetric, sector models of bearings were adopted. To verify the method, torque losses and oil quantities in ordinary-sized bearings have been measured. Calculated values based on sector models are qualitatively in good agreement with measured results. The difference between the absolute values of measured and calculated torque may be caused by the difference between the vertical model used in CFD analysis and the horizontal torque-testing rig used in measurement.To improve the accuracy, full models of the bearings have been developed and verified by experiment. The measured values are about 1.1 times as high as the calculated ones. It seems reasonable that this method…
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Innovative Torsional Vibration Reduction Devices - Vehicle-Related Design and Component Strength Analysis

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

TU München - Gear Research Centre (FZG)-Georg Johann Meingaßner, Hermann Pflaum, Karsten Stahl
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2862
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Downsizing and downspeeding are currently important development approaches of the automobile industry to improve fuel efficiency and to reduce emissions. Decreased operational speeds in combination with higher combustion pressures lead to an increase of the excitation of torsional vibrations by the combustion engine. Torsional vibrations in powertrains can cause strength and NVH problems as well as lower driving comfort and reliability of the vehicle. Currently, conventional systems for reduction of torsional vibrations are increasingly reaching their limits.In cooperation with several institutes of the Technische Universität München (TUM) innovative concepts for an improved reduction of torsional vibrations in automotive powertrains have been developed. Several of those concepts have been realized as prototype assemblies engineered by the Gear Research Centre (FZG). ([6], [7], [8], [12], [13], [14])During the design process, different challenges with regard to mass, mass moment of inertia and space demands have to be considered to ensure system performance and to meet vehicle-related requirements. Demands of prototype assemblies regarding modularity and installation interfaces to the available testing environment have to be considered as well. The…
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Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an SUV in early Development Stage using a Response Surface Method

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Exa Corporation-Bo Li, Andrea Shestopalov, Paul Stewart, Heinz Friz
FAW R&D Center-Shaoyun Sun, Qiang Fu, Jing Zhao, Long Ma, Shijie Fan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2445
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
In the development of an FAW SUV, one of the goals is to achieve a state of the art drag level. In order to achieve such an aggressive target, feedback from aerodynamics has to be included in the early stage of the design decision process. The aerodynamic performance evaluation and improvement is mostly based on CFD simulation in combination with some wind tunnel testing for verification of the simulation results. As a first step in this process, a fully detailed simulation model is built. The styling surface is combined with engine room and underbody detailed geometry from a similar size existing vehicle. From a detailed analysis of the flow field potential areas for improvement are identified and five design parameters for modifying overall shape features of the upper body are derived. In a second step, a response surface method involving design of experiments and adaptive sampling techniques are applied for characterizing the effects of the design changes. The characterization is followed by an optimization step to find the best possible drag improvement from these design…
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Experimental Study of Interaction between Brake-Disc Surface Texture and Friction Material on Friction and Wear through Small-Scale Tests on Tribotester

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

KIRIU Corp.-Toshikazu Okamura
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2502
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
There are various processes for finishing the friction surfaces of a brake disc, which affect the braking effectiveness of a vehicle in the early stages of use in some cases. To examine the interaction between the disc surface texture, rotational direction, and friction material, a series of experiments on a tribotester using small-scale specimens was conducted.In a previous paper (2013-01-2056), the results from the first series of experiments, which involved of thirty disc surface textures and a less aggressive non-asbestos organic (NAO) friction material in on-brake-drag conditions combining constant speed and normal-load, was reported. Disc surfaces were finished by the following finishing processes in two rotational directions: turning under four cutting conditions, roller burnishing after turning, turning with a wiper insert, and grinding with two stones. Contact-pressure dependency of friction and wear was confirmed. Roller-burnished and wiper-turned discs exhibited different friction and wear at a certain contact pressure between rotational directions in the turning process.In the present study, four discs finished by grinding in a different cross-hatch pattern from that in the previous study and…
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Investigations on Tribological Memory Effects in Friction Materials

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Federal Mogul-Hans-Guenther Paul
Tu Braunschweig-Lars Wilkening, Georg Peter Ostermeyer
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2481
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
Friction materials for automotive brakes are known to exhibit a time-dependent tribological behavior. When examining these dynamic effects special demands are made on the measurement device: The influences of the brake system should be minimized and parameters like velocity, contact pressure and temperature should be controlled closely and independently. Furthermore, special test procedures need to be designed. This can ideally be achieved using a scaled tribometer like the High-Load-Tribometer at the Institute of Dynamics and Vibrations in Braunschweig.Former investigations [1] have shown that a kind of memory effect can occur for a low-met brake pad rubbing on a cast iron disk. A variation of the initial disk temperatures has revealed that a temporary increase of the coefficient of friction can occur at slightly elevated temperatures. This effect is memorized by the material as a certain procedure needs to be performed in order to achieve a regeneration. The scope of the current work is to extend this examination with respect to different materials and also include different load cases. It will be studied if effects, like…
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ASURT Formula Student Brake Design

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of Ain Shams-Mohamed Samy Barakat
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2487
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
The Braking System is the most crucial part of the racing vehicle. There is no doubt, that if only one minority failure in the braking system took place, this would be more than enough reason to cause the racing team disqualification from the competition. Time is the main and the most important criteria for any racing competition; on the other hand the formula student “FS UK SAE” competition care the most about developing the automotive engineering sense in the students by putting them under strict rules normally taken from the original version “formula 1” to encourage their creativity to reach the optimum performance under these strict rules. One of the most important rules is “No Braking by wire”, and the obvious consequences are more stopping distance and time. Braking distance is a critical facture in achieving racing success in a competitive domain. This report will cover using the bias bar, dynamic weight distribution “before and after braking” and carefully choosing the braking and suspension system components dimensions, in order to fulfill the main functions of…
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