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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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Combustion Behavior of Leaking Hydrogen and Effects of Ceiling Variations

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Japan Automobile Research Institute-Yohsuke Tamura, MASARU TAKABAYASHI, Jinji Suzuki
Nohmi Bosai LTD.-Takashi Nohmi, Maya Maekawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0254
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen concentration during combustion in a confined space with a ceiling was investigated. The results indicated that steady-state hydrogen concentration was highest at the ceiling surface for all hydrogen flow rates. When hydrogen concentration was 10-20%, weak flame propagation occurred at the ceiling surface, with the most easily burnable spots being dented areas such as seams, pores and creases on the ceiling surface. The unstable and limited nature of flame propagation at the ceiling surface was attributed to the relationship between temperature and hydrogen concentration in a confined space.
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Identification of Object Impact Location and Bumper Stiffness Curve for Pedestrian Protection System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Robert Bosch LLC-Seo-Wook Park, Robert Jones
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0083
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A method for identification of object impact location and bumper stiffness curve is presented in this paper. The method calculates an offset distance of object impact based on intrusions obtained from three accelerometers mounted in the bumper fascia. The method also evaluates a center strength based on an absolute sum of acceleration. A characteristic line has been introduced in a two-dimensional domain consisting of intrusion-based offset and center strength. When test data are projected onto the characteristic line, an improved object impact location can be achieved. An intrusion curve over offset distance is obtained for impact tests striking at different locations with the same object and same speed. Then, a bumper stiffness curve can be identified by taking a reciprocal of the intrusion curve. This study shows a bumper stiffness curve can be used for an impact object classification for the pedestrian protection system.
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Unsteady Aerodynamic Properties of a Vehicle Model and their Effect on Driver and Vehicle under Side Wind Conditions

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

FKFS-David Schroeck, Werner Krantz, Nils Widdecke, Jochen Wiedemann
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0154
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
In this paper the effect of aerodynamic modifications that influence the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a vehicle on the response of the closed loop system driver-vehicle under side wind conditions is investigated.In today's aerodynamic optimization the side wind sensitivity of a vehicle is determined from steady state values measured in the wind tunnel. There, the vehicle is rotated with respect to the wind tunnel flow to create an angle of attack. In this approach however, the gustiness that is inherent in natural wind is not reproduced. Further, unsteady forces and moments acting on the vehicle are not measured due to the limited dynamic response of the commonly used wind tunnel balances.Therefore, a new method is introduced, overcoming the shortcomings of the current steady state approach. The method consists of the reproduction of the properties of natural stochastic crosswind that are essential for the determination of the side wind sensitivity of a vehicle. Further, a fast-response wind tunnel balance is used to measure unsteady forces on the model resulting from the crosswind excitation. The results for…
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Establishing Correlation between Torsional and Lateral Stiffness Parameters of BIW and Vehicle Handling Performance

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Hari Krishnan M, N Sreeraj, C Bhaskar, G Nagaraju, R Mugundaram
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0089
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
There are numerous parameters that affect the handling characteristics of ground vehicles. Among those, lateral and torsional body stiffness plays a major role. Increasing the body stiffness not only improves the handling characteristics, [1] but also other properties like crashworthiness, [6], Noise Vibration & Harshness [NVH], and durability, [2], [3]. But a body with high stiffness, demands a higher weight and cost because of the increased panel thickness required and reinforcement members. Car manufactures try to reduce the vehicle weight to improve the fuel efficiency, because this is one of the primary criteria based on which customers purchase vehicles. In the process of achieving a light weight body, the body stiffness may suffer. As a result of many earlier studies, it is known that increase in stiffness of the vehicle body improves the handling of the vehicle, [2]. But, there has been no attempt made to predict how much improvement in handling occurs for a particular increase in body stiffness. The objective of this project is to establish a Correlation between Torsional and Lateral Stiffness…
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Linear Quadratic Game Theory Approach to Optimal Preview Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Virginia Tech-Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Saied Taheri, Mehdi Ahmadian
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0963
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle stability is maintained by proper interactions between the driver and vehicle stability control system. While driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept is inspired by Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players, in which driver, commanding steering wheel angle, and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game. The optimal preview feedback gains are obtained, and the resulting controllers are evaluated by the nonlinear vehicle model of CarSim7 for the standard lane change maneuver.
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Evaluating Impact Attenuator Performance for a Formula SAE Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Kettering Univ-Jason Fahland, Craig Hoff, Janet Brelin-Fornari
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1106
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Formula SAE® is one of several student design competitions organized by SAE International. In the Formula SAE events undergraduate and graduate students are required to conceive, design, fabricate and compete with a small, formula-style, race car. Formula SAE safety rules dictate a 7 m/s (or approximately 15.65 mph) frontal crash test for nose-mounted impact attenuators. These rules are outlined in section B3.21 of the Formula SAE rule book. Development and testing methods of these energy-absorbing devices have varied widely among teams. This paper uses real-world crash sled results to research methods for predicting the performance of aluminum honeycomb impact attenuators that will comply with the Formula SAE standards. However, the resulting models used to predict attenuator performance may also have a variety of useful applications outside of Formula SAE. In this paper, various energy absorbers were mounted to a free rolling trolley sitting on top of a crash sled. The sled was launched so that the trolley with the attached attenuator was allowed to strike a rigid barrier. This resulted in a sudden deceleration measured…
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Development of an Electrically Driven Intelligent Brake System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.-Yukio Ohtani, Kentaro Ueno
Nissan Motor Co., LTD.-Toshiaki Oshima, Noriaki Fujiki, Seiji Nakao, Tetsuo Kimura
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0568
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an electrically driven intelligent brake system that has been developed for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which are expected to penetrate markets rapidly amid the ongoing energy paradigm shift. This brake system achieves a cooperative energy regeneration function and high responsiveness while providing braking performance, system reliability and vehicle mounting ease equal to that of conventional brake systems with a vacuum booster. This paper outlines the newly developed brake system and describes various issues involved in cooperative regenerative braking along with the technologies that were applied to address them.
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Evaluation and Optimization of Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic Performance of a Heavy Truck using Digital Simulation

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Dongfeng Motor Co Ltd-Ming Jiang, Huaizhu Wu, Kebing Tang
Exa Corporation-Minsuk Kim, Sivapalan Senthooran, Heinz Friz
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0162
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The engineering process in the development of commercial vehicles is facing more and more stringent emission regulations while at the same time the market demands for better performance but with lower fuel consumption. The optimization of aerodynamic performance for reduced drag is a key element for achieving related performance targets. Closely related to aerodynamics are wind noise and cabin soiling and both of them are becoming more and more important as a quality criterion in many markets.This paper describes the aerodynamic and aero-acoustic performance evaluation of a Dongfeng heavy truck using digital simulation based on a LBM approach. It includes a study for improving drag within the design of a facelift of the truck. A soiling analysis is performed for each aerodynamic result by calculating the accumulation of particles emitted form the wheels on the cabin.One of the challenges in the development process of trucks is that different cabin types have to be designed. The aerodynamic performance study considers a high roof and a low roof version of the truck. For the high roof version,…
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A Design Methodology to Assure Safe On-Road Handling Dynamics for Vehicles with Aftermarket Chassis Modifications

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Clemson-ICAR-Mandar Hazare, Paul J Th Venhovens
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0965
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. NHTSA has established the FMVSS 126 standard that requires all vehicles sold in the U.S. to include an ESC system as standard equipment after September 1 st , 2011. There is growing concern among aftermarket suppliers specialized in development and installation of vehicle performance parts that chassis modifications may cause the ESC systems to be inoperative or can create unforeseen issues with stability and safety systems. This industry is in need of a process to support the development and validation of chassis modification. The authors propose the implementation of SIL and HIL simulations as a solution to the problem statement. Based on the results of a sensitivity analysis, guidelines for safe aftermarket modifications will be presented.
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Vehicle Handling Parameter Trends: 1980 - 2010

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors Company-John A. Carriere, David T. De Carteret
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0969
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Handling and tire performance continue to evolve due to significant improvements in vehicle, electronics, and tire technology over the years. This paper examines the trends in handling and tire performance metrics for production cars and trucks since the 1980's. This paper is based on a significant number of directional response and tire tests conducted during that period. It describes ranges of these parameters and shows how they have changed over the past thirty years.
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