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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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Acoustic Analysis of Exhaust Muffler of a 4-Stroke Engine

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Engineering Research Centre, Tata Motors Ltd.-Abhishek Vishwakarma
Indian Institute of Technology-P. Chandramouli, V. Ganesan
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1980
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A one-dimensional analysis was performed to analyze a three-pass muffler with perforated tubes for Transmission Loss, using numerical decoupling approach. Effect of mean flow on transmission loss inside the muffler was studied. To account for the three-dimensional nature of acoustic waves at higher frequencies, a three dimensional finite element analysis was done using SYSNOISE. The Transmission loss results of the three-dimensional analysis were compared with those of one-dimensional analysis for no flow case and shown to agree reasonably for lower frequency range.
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Biomechanical Evaluation of Headwear System Prototypes using Digital Human Modeling

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

HumanSystems Incorporated-Kent W. McKee
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2267
Published 2009-06-09 by SAE International in United States
Digital human modeling allows for the evaluation of equipment designs before physically building and testing prototypes. This paper presents an example of how digital human modeling was used to perform biomechanical studies on four new designs for future infantry headwear systems. Range of Motion (ROM) and cervical spine forces and moments were compared using static and dynamic simulations in a virtual environment. Results confirmed that headwear system prototypes with optimal overall mass and Centre of Mass (CM) location, as determined by previous human subject trials, exerted the least amount of biomechanical loading. Facial protection was favorable when considering forces and moments in the cervical spine, however when considering ROM, the rigid prototype mandible guards used in this evaluation are not recommended. The shape of a more accommodating mandible guard was developed, and the option to remove facial protection for some tasks was recommended.
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Dynamic Analysis of Car Ingress/Egress Movement: an Experimental Protocol and Preliminary Results

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

INRETS-Julien Causse, Elodie Chateauroux, Gilles Monnier, Xuguang Wang
PSA Peugeot-Citroen-Lisa Denninger
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2309
Published 2009-06-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on full body dynamical analysis of car ingress/egress motion. It aims at proposing an experimental protocol adapted for analysing joint loads using inverse dynamics. Two preliminary studies were first performed in order to 1/ define the main driver/car interactions so as to allow measuring the contact forces at all possible contact zones and 2/ identify the design parameters that mainly influence the discomfort.In order to verify the feasibility of the protocol, a laboratory study was carried out, during which two subjects tested two car configurations. The experimental equipment was composed of a variable car mock-up, an optoelectronic motion tracking system, two 6D-force plates installed on the ground next to the doorframe and on the car floor, a 6D-Force sensor between the steering wheel and the steering column, and two pressure maps on the seat. Motions were reconstructed from measured surface markers trajectories using inverse kinematics. Joint loads were calculated by an inverse dynamic approach using a recursive Newton-Euler procedure.The validation of the computing method and the relevance of a dynamic approach are…
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Inverse Dynamic Reconstruction of Truck Cabin Ingress/Egress Motions

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

INRETS-Gilles Monnier, Elodie Chateauroux, Xuguang Wang
VOLVO 3P-Christophe Roybin
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2286
Published 2009-06-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the feasibility of calculating joint forces and moments during a whole body truck cabin ingress/egress motion. For such a task, it is difficult to evaluate a future truck instep as the influences of the architecture parameters are complex over the motion and the discomfort feeling. In order to evaluate the future product at an early stage of the design process, Digital Human Models (DHMs) are interesting tools. However, most existing DHM simulation packages can only efficiently evaluate the kinematics of postures where the dynamics of the whole motion is necessary for such a task. The enhancement of DHMs towards a dynamic analysis and modeling is therefore necessary.In this study, the motions of subjects entering and exiting an adjustable truck cabin were measured by mean of an opto-electronic motion capture system and six load sensors. The joint angles were then calculated using an inverse kinematics method. And the joint loads were calculated using a classical Newton-Euler inverse dynamics method during the period when all the contact loads are measured. The comparison of the…
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Estimation of Mass and Inertia Properties of Human Body Segments for Physics-based Human Modeling and Simulation Applications

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

The University of Iowa-Rajeev Penmatsa, Rajankumar Bhatt, Kimberly Farrell, Brent Rochambeau, Carl Fruehan, Uday Verma, Steven Beck, Karim Abdel-Malek
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2301
Published 2009-06-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an effective integrated method for estimation of subject-specific mass, inertia tensor, and center of mass of individual body segments of a digital avatar for use with physics-based digital human modeling simulation environment. One of the main goals of digital human modeling and simulation environments is that a user should be able to change the avatar (from male to female to a child) at any given time. The user should also be able to change the various link dimensions, like lengths of upper and lower arms, lengths of upper and lower legs, etc. These customizations in digital avatar's geometry change the kinematic and dynamic properties of various segments of its body. Hence, the mass and center of mass/inertia data of the segments must be updated before simulating physics-based realistic motions. Most of the current methods use mass and inertia properties calculated from a set of regression equations based on average of some population. In this paper, we calculate avatar-specific mass and inertia properties from the scans of digital human. The mesh of the…
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Using Designing for Human Variability to optimize Aircraft eat Layout

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

The Pennsylvania State University-Gopal Nadadur, Matthew B. Parkinson
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2310
Published 2009-06-09 by SAE International in United States
Integrating the seemingly divergent objectives of aircraft seat configuration is a difficult task. Aircraft manufacturers look to design seats to maximize customer satisfaction and in-flight safety, but these objectives can conflict with the profit motive of airline companies. In order to boost revenue by increasing the number of passengers per aircraft, airline companies may increase seat height and decrease seat pitch. This results in disaccommodation of a greater percentage of the passenger population and is a reason for rising customer dissatisfaction.This paper describes an effort to bridge this gap by incorporating digital human models, layout optimization, and a profit-maximizing constraint into the aircraft seat design problem. A simplified aircraft seat design experiment is conceptualized and its results are extrapolated to an airline passenger population. The dependence of passengers’ comfort ratings on seat height and seat pitch are analyzed, with the aim being to study how to maximize the design's profitability while not compromising comfort. This is a specific example of a general problem: modeling the design space of multi-objective problems involving designing for human variability.…
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Development of a New Squeak and Rattle Detection Algorithm

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of Cincinnati-Unnikrishnan Kuttan Chandrika, Jay Kim
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2111
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
A new algorithm to detect and to quantify the seriousness of the detected squeak and rattle (S&R) events was developed. A T-F analysis technique called AWT, the Zwicker loudness model and leaky integration are employed to define new concepts we called transient specific loudness time histories and perceived transient loudness time history. The detection threshold of the perceived transient loudness was identified by a clever interpretation of jury test results. The proposed algorithm showed a good promise producing results that are well correlated with the jury tests. The new algorithm developed in this work will be able to automate detection and rating of the S&R events with good accuracy and with minimum possibility of false alarm under normal operating conditions
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A Study of Effects of Brake Contact Interfaces on Brake Squeal

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Robert Bosch LLC-Yan Yue, Lixin Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2100
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
Brake squeal is caused by the friction-induced vibration at the rotor/pad interfaces (primary contact interfaces) in a disc brake system. While there have been numerous research work evaluating the influence of primary contact interfaces on brake squeal, few studies can be found on the effect of the secondary contact interfaces, i.e., outer pad/caliper fingers, inner pad/pistons and pad/abutment, which can also significantly affect brake squeal based on our various dynamometer and vehicle tests. It is therefore the objective of this paper to investigate both the primary and the secondary contact interfaces and their influence on brake squeal. Simplified analytical models are created to gain insight into the stability of the brake system under low and high brake pressure; non-linear FEA analysis is employed for parametric study and countermeasure development; dynamometer and vehicle tests are used for verification. Case studies on low frequency squeal under low pressure and high frequency squeal at high pressure are presented.
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Vibration Analysis of Powertrain Mounting System with a Combination of Active and Passive Isolators with Spectrally-varying Properties

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

The Ohio State University-Jae-Yeol Park, Rajendra Singh
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2034
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
Most of the prior work on active mounting systems has been conducted in the context of a single degree-of-freedom even though the vehicle powertrain is a six degree-of-freedom isolation system. We seek to overcome this deficiency by proposing a new six degree-of-freedom analytical model of the powertrain system with a combination of active and passive mounts. All stiffness and damping elements contain spectrally-varying properties and we examine powertrain motions when excited by an oscillating torque. Two methods are developed that describe the mount elements via a transfer function (in Laplace domain). New analytical formulations are verified by comparing the frequency responses with numerical results obtained by the direct inversion method (based on Voigt type mount model). Eigensolutions of a spectrally varying mounting system are also predicted by new models. Complex eigenvalue problem formulation with spectrally-varying properties provides a closer match with experimental results than the real eigenvalue formulation with frequency-independent mounts. Given the spectral variance in the mount properties, a simple roll mode decoupling scheme is suggested for the powertrain isolation system. Then, the role…
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Acceptability of OHM and ATV Noise-Case Studies of Environmental Noise Produced by OHM and ATV Riding Areas

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Richard G. pierson
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2244
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
Acceptability of Off-Highway Motorcycle (OHM) and All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) noise is increasingly becoming an issue. Increasing numbers of riders combined with a decrease in available riding areas, due to liability concerns and increasing rural development, has raised issues with land compatibility. Lack of clear noise regulations in typical rural Midwestern communities makes enforcement difficult or subjective.This paper reviews two case studies of OHM and ATV riding area noise at neighboring residential property lines. One study was performed as part of the defense for nuisance tickets, for excessive noise, issued to a group of riders at a new private riding area. The other study was performed to help an established riding club obtain a conditional use permit for their land, which they had been legally riding on for decades, due to noise and dust complaints from new residential development next to their property.An issue immediately raised with both of these studies was determining applicable noise regulations. A review of related state and federal standards along with peer community standards was used to determine an approach…
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