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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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Fault Diagnosis Approach for Roller Bearings Based on Optimal Morlet Wavelet De-Noising and Auto-Correlation Enhancement

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Helwan University Faculty of Engineering, Egypt-Mohamed El Morsy
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0010
Published 2019-05-02 by SAE International in United States
This article presents a fault diagnosis approach for roller bearing by applying the autocorrelation approach to filtered vibration measured signal. An optimal Morlet wavelet filter is applied to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations; the raw measured signal is filtered with a band-pass filter based on a Morlet wavelet function whose parameters are optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Autocorrelation enhancement is applied to the filtered signal to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature. The proposed technique is used to analyze the experimental measured signal of investigated vehicle gearbox. An artificial fault is introduced in vehicle gearbox bearing an orthogonal placed groove on the inner race with the initial width of 0.6 mm approximately. The faulted bearing is a roller bearing located on the gearbox input shaft - on the clutch side. The test stand is equipped with two dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as internal combustion engine; the output dynamometer introduces the load on the flange of output joint shaft.
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Systematic CFD Parameter Approach to Improve Torque Converter Simulation

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Co., USA-Steve Frait
Michigan Technological University, USA-Edward De Jesus Rivera, Darrell L. Robinette, Jason R. Blough, Carl L. Anderson
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0008
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A systematic parametrization approach was employed to simulate a torque converter operating over a wide range of speed ratios. Results of the simulation yielded torque converter impeller and turbine torques prediction errors below 11% when compared to manufacturer data. Further improvements in the computational fluids dynamic (CFD) model reduced such errors down to 3% for the impeller and 6% for the turbine torque predictions. Convergence was reached well under 300 iterations for the most optimal variable setting, but each speed ratio was let to run for 300 iterations. Solution time for the 300 iterations was 40 minutes per speed ratio. The systematic parametrization provides a very competitive procedure for torque converter simulation with reduced computational error and fast solution time.
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Comparison Study of Malaysian Driver Seating Position in SAEJ1517 Accommodation Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

PROTON Shah Alam, Malaysia-Zuli’zam Rashid
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia-Nooh Abu Bakar
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0006
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A key element in an ergonomically designed driver’s seat in a car is the correct identification of driver seating position and posture accommodation. Current practice by the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is to utilize the Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) J1517 standard practice as a reference. However, it was found that utilizing such guidelines, which were developed based on the American population, did not fit well with the anthropometry and stature of the Malaysian population. This research seeks to address this issue by comparing the SAE J1517 Model against Malaysian preferred driving position. A total of 62 respondents were involved for the driver seating position and accommodation study in the vehicle driver’s seat buck mockup survey and measurements. The results have shown that the Malaysian drivers prefer to sit forward as compared to the SAE J1517 Model and have shorter posture joint angle. This could significantly affect the design of the driver seat positions and layout of other driving elements, suggesting a need to reconsider its application, in particular for the Malaysian population.
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A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

NIO, USA-Omid Ghasemalizadeh
Texas State University, USA-Seyedmeysam Khaleghian
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0007
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, experiments were performed using the trailer test setup and friction was calculated using the measured forces. Good agreement was observed between the estimated and actual friction coefficients.
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Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization: On a Combination of Adjoint Method and Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd, China-Jing Li, Chen Xu
Hebei University of Technology, China China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd, China-Yang Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0011
Published 2019-04-26 by SAE International in United States
This article presents a workflow for aerodynamic optimization of vehicles that for the first time combines the adjoint method and the efficient global optimization (EGO) algorithm in order to take advantage of both the gradient-based and gradient-free methods for aerodynamic optimization problems. In the workflow, the adjoint method is first applied to locate the sensitive surface regions of the baseline vehicle with respect to the objective functions and define a proper design space with reasonable design variables. Then the EGO algorithm is applied to search for the optimal site in the design space based on the expected improvement (EI) function. Such workflow has been applied to minimize the aerodynamic drag for a mass-produced electric vehicle. With the help of STAR-CCM+ and its adjoint solver, sensitive surface regions with respect to the aerodynamic drag are first located on the vehicle. Then the design samples are determined with the help of the uniform design (UD) method and trained by the EGO algorithm (written by MATLAB) for searching the optimum. The optimization results are analyzed to validate the…
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Multi-Chamber Tire Concept for Low Rolling-Resistance

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of Birmingham, UK-Hamad Sarhan Aldhufairi, Khamis Essa, Oluremi Olatunbosun
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0009
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Rolling-resistance is leading the direction of numerous tire developments due to its significant effect on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions considering the vehicles in use globally. Many attempts were made to reduce rolling-resistance in vehicles, but with no or limited success due to tire complexity and trade-offs. This article investigates the concept of multiple chambers inside the tire as a potential alternative solution for reducing rolling-resistance. To accomplish that, novel multi-chamber designs were introduced and numerically simulated through finite-element (FE) modeling. The FE models were compared against a standard design as the baseline. The influences on rolling-resistance, grip, cornering, and mechanical comfort were studied. The multi-chambers tire model reduced rolling-resistance considerably with acceptable trade-offs. Independent air volumes isolating the tread from sidewalls would maintain tire’s profile effectively. Different air concentration across the tire’s chambers gave the tire extended versatility. Rolling non-uniformity depends upon inner-chambers’ stability, sidewalls’ flexibility and tire/chamber(s) integration.
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