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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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A Probabilistic Approach to Hydroplaning Potential and Risk

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University at Buffalo, USA-Francine Battaglia
Virginia Tech, USA-Yong-suk Kang, Ashkan Nazari, Lu Chen, Saied Taheri, John B. Ferris, Gerardo Flintsch
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0005
Published 2019-01-30 by SAE International in United States
A major contributor to fatal vehicle crashes is hydroplaning, which has traditionally been reported at a specific vehicle speed for a given operating condition. However, hydroplaning is a complex phenomenon requiring a holistic, probabilistic, and multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this article is to develop a probabilistic approach to predict Hydroplaning Potential and Risk that integrates fundamental understanding of the interdependent factors: hydrology, fluid-solid interactions, tire mechanics, and vehicle dynamics. A novel theoretical treatment of Hydroplaning Potential and Risk is developed, and simulation results for the prediction of water film thickness and Hydroplaning Potential are presented. The results show the advantages of the current approach which could enable the improvement of road, vehicle, and tire design, resulting in greater safety of the traveling public.
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Enhanced Coil Spring Modeling in Passenger Car Suspension for Improved Target Setting Process

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC, UK-Roberto Bianco
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0004
Published 2018-12-14 by SAE International in United States
The problem addressed in this work is how to formulate accurate targets for coil springs in passenger car suspensions to ensure that the required ride height and wheel rate are achieved. The issue arises because suspensions often tend to introduce significant spring deformations other than a purely axial compression. Although these effects are quite common, their influence on suspension performance is still not well understood. To this purpose, a new enhanced spring model is presented. The theory behind the model is explained and the relationship between spring and suspension performance discussed in detail. To validate formulations, a series of numerical simulations has been carried out demonstrating the model accuracy. Finally, a novel approach to spring target setting is proposed based on this advanced spring model.
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Improving Vehicle Rollover Resistance Using Fuzzy PID Controller of Active Anti-Roll Bar System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Egypt-Mohamed Mostafa Khalil, Mostafa R.A. Atia
Military Technical College, Egypt-Mohamed H. Mabrouk
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0003
Published 2018-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The active anti-roll bar (AARB) system in vehicles has recently become one of the research hotspots in the field of vehicle technology to improve the vehicle’s active safety. In most off-road vehicles, high ground clearance is required while keeping all wheels in contact with the ground in order to improve traction and maintain load distribution among the wheels. A problem however arises in some types of the off-road vehicles when the vehicle is operated at high speeds on smooth roads. In such condition, the combination of the vehicle’s center of gravity position, large suspension stroke, and soft spring construction creates a stability problem, which could make the vehicle liable to rollover. This article analyzes a comparison of stability performance between passive and active anti-roll bar systems to improve rolling resistance. For active systems, two control strategies will be investigated. The conventional Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is firstly investigated and taken as a reference. Then a modified Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller with fuzzy technology is developed and compared to the reference one. A full-car…
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U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Air Conditioning Fuel Use and Impact of Solar/Thermal Control Technologies

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA-John Palmer Rugh, Cory Kreutzer, Bidzina Kekelia, Gene Titov, Jason Lustbader
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0002
Published 2018-12-11 by SAE International in United States
To reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from mobile air conditioning (A/C) systems, “U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards” identified solar/thermal technologies such as solar control glazings, solar reflective paint, and active and passive cabin ventilation in an off-cycle credit menu. * National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers developed a sophisticated analysis process to calculate U.S. light-duty A/C fuel use that was used to assess the impact of these technologies, leveraging thermal and vehicle simulation analysis tools developed under previous U.S. Department of Energy projects. Representative U.S. light-duty driving behaviors and weighting factors including time-of-day of travel, trip duration, and time between trips were characterized and integrated into the analysis. In addition, U.S. weather conditions weighted based on light-duty vehicle registrations were generated and used for the analysis. Three representative vehicle types for the light-duty fleet were selected based on registration data containing vehicle size information. These key inputs were used to support a weighted parametric analysis that quantified vehicle thermal load, vehicle accessory load, and vehicle…
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PSO-Fuzzy Gain Scheduling of PID Controllers for a Nonlinear Half-Vehicle Suspension System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Concordia University, Canada-Hamid Taghavifar, Bin Li
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0001
Published 2018-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The present article addresses the gain scheduling of proportional-integral-differential (PID) controllers using fuzzy set theory coupled with a metaheuristic optimization technique to control the vehicle nonlinear suspension system. The nonlinearities of the vehicle suspension system are due to the asymmetric piecewise dampers, quadratic tire stiffness, and the cubical spring stiffness. Conventional PID controller suffers from the low performance subject to modeling nonlinearities, while fuzzy logic controller (FLC), as a universal approximator, has the capacity to deal with the nonlinear, stochastic, and complex models. However, finding the optimal Mamdani FLC rules is still a challenging task in addition to a proper architecture of the membership functions (MFs). As a remedy to this drawback, particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is employed in this article to improve the efficiency of the FLC-based PID controllers. The proposed nonlinear controller is suggestive of the decreased overshoot and reduced settling time for the heave and pitch motions of the half-vehicle model. The satisfactory performance of the controller, when tires are subject to random excitations, to reduce the peak magnitude is observable…
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