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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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ERRATUM

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Dzmitry Savitski, Klaus Bernhard Augsburg
Technische Universitat Ilmenau-Vincenzo Ricciardi, Valentin Ivanov
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2520.1
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
This is a errata for 2017-01-2520.
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Reduced-Order Modeling of Vehicle Aerodynamics via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany-Rolf Radespiel
Volkswagen AG, Germany-Markus Mrosek, Carsten Othmer
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-03-0016
Published 2019-10-21 by SAE International in United States
Aerodynamic optimization of the exterior vehicle shape is a highly multidisciplinary task involving, among others, styling and aerodynamics. The often differing priorities of these two disciplines give rise to iterative loops between stylists and aerodynamicists. Reduced-order modeling (ROM) has the potential to shortcut these loops by enabling aerodynamic evaluations in real time. In this study, we aim to assess the performance of ROM via proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for a real-life industrial test case, with focus on the achievable accuracy for the prediction of fields and aerodynamic coefficients. To that end, we create a training data set based on a six-dimensional parameterization of a Volkswagen passenger production car by computing 100 variants with Detached-Eddy simulations (DES). Based on this training data, we reduce the dimension of the solution space via POD and interpolate the base coefficients with Kriging (aka Gaussian Process Regression) for predictions of the flow field at unseen parameter combinations. The error analysis of the fields and drag coefficient predictions reveal that 100 training samples are sufficient for this six-dimensional test case in…
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Fault Diagnosis Approach for Roller Bearings Based on Optimal Morlet Wavelet De-Noising and Auto-Correlation Enhancement

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Helwan University Faculty of Engineering, Egypt-Mohamed El Morsy
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0010
Published 2019-05-02 by SAE International in United States
This article presents a fault diagnosis approach for roller bearing by applying the autocorrelation approach to filtered vibration measured signal. An optimal Morlet wavelet filter is applied to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations; the raw measured signal is filtered with a band-pass filter based on a Morlet wavelet function whose parameters are optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Autocorrelation enhancement is applied to the filtered signal to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature. The proposed technique is used to analyze the experimental measured signal of investigated vehicle gearbox. An artificial fault is introduced in vehicle gearbox bearing an orthogonal placed groove on the inner race with the initial width of 0.6 mm approximately. The faulted bearing is a roller bearing located on the gearbox input shaft - on the clutch side. The test stand is equipped with two dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as internal combustion engine; the output dynamometer introduces the load on the flange of output joint shaft.
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Systematic CFD Parameter Approach to Improve Torque Converter Simulation

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Co., USA-Steve Frait
Michigan Technological University, USA-Edward De Jesus Rivera, Darrell L. Robinette, Jason R. Blough, Carl L. Anderson
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0008
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A systematic parametrization approach was employed to simulate a torque converter operating over a wide range of speed ratios. Results of the simulation yielded torque converter impeller and turbine torques prediction errors below 11% when compared to manufacturer data. Further improvements in the computational fluids dynamic (CFD) model reduced such errors down to 3% for the impeller and 6% for the turbine torque predictions. Convergence was reached well under 300 iterations for the most optimal variable setting, but each speed ratio was let to run for 300 iterations. Solution time for the 300 iterations was 40 minutes per speed ratio. The systematic parametrization provides a very competitive procedure for torque converter simulation with reduced computational error and fast solution time.
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Comparison Study of Malaysian Driver Seating Position in SAEJ1517 Accommodation Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

PROTON Shah Alam, Malaysia-Zuli’zam Rashid
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia-Nooh Abu Bakar
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0006
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A key element in an ergonomically designed driver’s seat in a car is the correct identification of driver seating position and posture accommodation. Current practice by the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is to utilize the Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) J1517 standard practice as a reference. However, it was found that utilizing such guidelines, which were developed based on the American population, did not fit well with the anthropometry and stature of the Malaysian population. This research seeks to address this issue by comparing the SAE J1517 Model against Malaysian preferred driving position. A total of 62 respondents were involved for the driver seating position and accommodation study in the vehicle driver’s seat buck mockup survey and measurements. The results have shown that the Malaysian drivers prefer to sit forward as compared to the SAE J1517 Model and have shorter posture joint angle. This could significantly affect the design of the driver seat positions and layout of other driving elements, suggesting a need to reconsider its application, in particular for the Malaysian population.
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A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

NIO, USA-Omid Ghasemalizadeh
Texas State University, USA-Seyedmeysam Khaleghian
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0007
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, experiments were performed using the trailer test setup and friction was calculated using the measured forces. Good agreement was observed between the estimated and actual friction coefficients.
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A Probabilistic Approach to Hydroplaning Potential and Risk

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University at Buffalo, USA-Francine Battaglia
Virginia Tech, USA-Yong-suk Kang, Ashkan Nazari, Lu Chen, Saied Taheri, John B. Ferris, Gerardo Flintsch
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0005
Published 2019-01-30 by SAE International in United States
A major contributor to fatal vehicle crashes is hydroplaning, which has traditionally been reported at a specific vehicle speed for a given operating condition. However, hydroplaning is a complex phenomenon requiring a holistic, probabilistic, and multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this article is to develop a probabilistic approach to predict Hydroplaning Potential and Risk that integrates fundamental understanding of the interdependent factors: hydrology, fluid-solid interactions, tire mechanics, and vehicle dynamics. A novel theoretical treatment of Hydroplaning Potential and Risk is developed, and simulation results for the prediction of water film thickness and Hydroplaning Potential are presented. The results show the advantages of the current approach which could enable the improvement of road, vehicle, and tire design, resulting in greater safety of the traveling public.
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Enhanced Coil Spring Modeling in Passenger Car Suspension for Improved Target Setting Process

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC, UK-Roberto Bianco
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0004
Published 2018-12-14 by SAE International in United States
The problem addressed in this work is how to formulate accurate targets for coil springs in passenger car suspensions to ensure that the required ride height and wheel rate are achieved. The issue arises because suspensions often tend to introduce significant spring deformations other than a purely axial compression. Although these effects are quite common, their influence on suspension performance is still not well understood. To this purpose, a new enhanced spring model is presented. The theory behind the model is explained and the relationship between spring and suspension performance discussed in detail. To validate formulations, a series of numerical simulations has been carried out demonstrating the model accuracy. Finally, a novel approach to spring target setting is proposed based on this advanced spring model.
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Overset Mesh-Based Computational Investigations on the Aerodynamics of a Generic Car Model in Proximity to a Side-Wall

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA-Charles Patrick Bounds, Srivatsa Mallapragada, Mesbah Uddin
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-03-0015
Published 2019-10-21 by SAE International in United States
This article discusses an approach to simulating a generic idealized car model (Ahmed body) moving in close proximity to a side-wall, using a transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. This phenomenon is very important in motorsports, where racing close to the safety barrier is common. Driving in close proximity to a side-wall alters the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle significantly; however, only a handful of published works exist in this area. Additionally, the experimental studies conducted in the past suffer from certain inadequacies, especially in terms of simulating the side-wall. This casts some uncertainty as to the relevance of these studies to the real-world problem. The present study attempts to imitate the real-world flow phenomenon by taking a nontraditional CFD approach of translating the body relative to the stationary surrounding fluid and side-wall instead of the classical method of flowing air over a stationary vehicle model. This was achieved by using a relatively new and computationally efficient meshing technique for overlapping grids called the “Overset” or “Chimera” mesh. The initial task was to accurately predict…
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A Predictive Tool to Evaluate Braking System Performance Using Thermo-Structural Finite Element Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia-Wan Zaidi Wan Omar
University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, Algeria-Ali Belhocine
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-03-0014
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The braking phenomenon is an aspect of vehicle stopping performance where with kinetic energy due to the speed of the vehicle is transformed into thermal energy produced by the brake disc and its pads. The heat must then be dissipated into the surrounding structure and into the airflow around the brake system. The thermal friction field during the braking phase between the disc and the brake pads can lead to excessive temperatures. In our work, we presented numerical modeling using ANSYS software adapted in the finite element method (FEM), to follow the evolution of the global temperatures for the two types of brake discs, full and ventilated disc during braking scenario. Also, numerical simulation of the transient thermal analysis and the static structural analysis were performed here sequentially, with coupled thermo-structural method. Numerical procedure of calculation relies on important steps such that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and thermal analysis have been well illustrated in three-dimensional form (3D), showing the effects of heat distribution over the brake disc. This CFD analysis helped us in the calculation…
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