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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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Design, Analysis, Simulation and Validation of Automobile Suspension System Using Drive-Shaft as a Suspension Link

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

College of Engineering Pune-Shubham Ramchandra Nehe, Ashay Ghogare, Shubham Vatsa, Lokesh Tekade, Shantanu Thakare, Prajakta Yadav, Pranav Shool, Pratik Wankhade, Vivekanand Dhakane, Satish Charjan
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-02-0011
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
With increasing demands for higher performance along with lower vehicle emissions, lightweight vehicle system construction is key to meet such demands. Suspension and transmission assemblies being the key areas for weight-reduction, we have designed a revolutionary new type of suspension system which combines the suspension links with the powertrain assembly and thus completely eliminates one suspension member. Less weight means lower fuel-consumption with improved passenger-comfort and road-holding due to reduction in unsprung mass. Elimination of a suspension link reduces the overall cost of material, machining & fabrication making our design cost-effective than existing setups. This article deals with the design and implementation of of our concept. A working prototype is also constructed and tested which completely validates our design. Our design has major benefits of ultralight-weight construction with reduced space requirement and component-count and improved serviceability.
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Introducing the Modified Tire Power Loss and Resistant Force Regarding Longitudinal Slip

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

K.N. Toosi University of Technology-Shahram Azadi
University of Tehran-Naser Sina, Vahid Esfahanian, Mohammad Reza Hairi Yazdi
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-02-0014
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
Investigation of vehicle resistant forces and power losses is of crucial importance owing to current state of energy consumption in transport sector. Meanwhile, considerable portion of resistant forces in a ground vehicle is traced back to tires. Pneumatic tires are known to be a source of energy dissipation as a consequence of their viscoelastic nature. The current study aims to provide a modification to tire resistance by considering the power loss in a tire due to longitudinal slip. The modified tire resistance is comprised of rolling resistance and a newly introduced resistance caused by tire slip, called slip resistance. The physical model is chosen for parameters sensitivity study since the tractive force is described in this model via tangible physical parameters, e.g. tire tangential stiffness, coefficient of friction, and contact patch length. Hence, the tire physical model is capable to investigate the influence of different parameters such as coefficient of friction, normal load, and inflation pressure on dependency of tractive force upon longitudinal slip. The results show that tractive force is a determining factor in…
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Development of Safe and Sustainable EPAS (Electric Power Assist Steering) System for Emerging Markets

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Tata Motors Ltd-Swapnil Salunkhe
Tata Technologies Ltd-Anand Mule, Jayant Kumar Sinha, Shrihari Matsagar
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-02-0012
Published 2018-04-07 by SAE International in United States
The vehicle attributes developed for emerging markets like India are unique because of different topographical conditions, diversity and culture within the different states. Major attributes in vehicle development process is development of safe and sustainable vehicle systems (steering, brakes etc.) for the driver. India is presently an emerging market for automotive sector. With booming economy, purchasing power of the consumer has gone up in the past few years. Most of young population of India have started buying the cars. At the same time, India’s road infrastructure, vehicle regulations have exalted over the years. The consumer cognizance towards the vehicles have started changing now. They want safer, robust system in their vehicles with new convenience features at affordable cost. In recent years, almost all OEM’s in India have migrated steering systems from HPAS to EPAS for payback on fuel economy and weight. This article discusses development of EPAS system with the following features for India market based on customer expectations and benchmark data.Assist control at different speedsActive steering returnabilityActive damping controlSoft stop- at rack bar end…
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Robust Design for Steering Mechanism Based on Preference Function

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Tianjin University of Technology and Education-Lei Zhang, Enguo Dong
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-02-0010
Published 2018-03-01 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve robustness of vehicle dynamic performance, a steering mechanism model is proposed with alignment parameters of front wheel based on preference function method. In the steering mechanism model controllable variables include the trapezoid connection length, the base angle of steering trapezoid, the kingpin inclination angle, caster, camber and uncontrollable variables include load and initial braking velocity. Optimization objective is some vehicle dynamic performance. In the preference function method the individual performance preference and preference aggregation in designing variable space and performance variable space are analyzed. The individual performance preference includes the controllable variable preference, noise factor preference and optimization objective preference. The aggregation function is developed by aggregating all the individual performance preferences. The robustness and optimization results are solved based on mean and variance of aggregation function. The results from the preference function method and Taguchi method have been compared. The data show that the individual performance preferences of the steering mechanism model are significantly improved using the preference function method with the nearly same optimization objective value.
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A Study of an Integrated HVAC-Vehicle Model for Automotive Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Larsen and Toubro Technology Services-Anand Ganesan, Ranu Jaiswal
Pitman Engineering Consultants Private Limited-Anand Pitchaikani
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-02-0013
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this work is to develop an integrated HVAC-VEHICLE model for climate control studies. A published lumped parameter based HVAC model has been used as the framework for the HVAC modeling with some modifications to realize the climate control and to improve the robustness of the model. R134a (1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethane) has been used as the refrigerant fluid in this study. The stand-alone HVAC model has been compared qualitatively with the experimental works available in the literature. The experimental trends of the thermodynamic and performance related parameters of HVAC are reasonably well captured by the HVAC model. In particular, Coefficient of Performance (CoP) was found to decrease with increase in compressor speed and increase in ambient temperature but increase with increase in evaporator blower mass flow rate. On the other hand, compressor power was found to increase with increase in the compressor speed and increase in the ambient temperature but decrease with increase in the evaporator blower mass flow rate. The employed HVAC model was found to be insensitive to refrigerant mass and condenser fan mass…
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A Kinematic Modeling Framework for Prediction of Instantaneous Status of Towing Vehicle Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Mississippi State University-Collin Davenport, James Gafford, John Ball, Matthew Doude, Reuben Burch
United States-Yucheng Liu
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-02-0015
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
A kinematic modeling framework was established to predict status (position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, and shape) of a towing vehicle system with different driver inputs. This framework consists of three components: (1) a state space model to decide position and velocity for the vehicle system based on Newton’s second law; (2) an angular acceleration transferring model, which leads to a hypothesis that the each towed unit follows the same path as the towing vehicle; and (3) a polygon model to draw instantaneous polygons to envelop the entire system at any time point. Input parameters of this model include initial conditions of the system, real-time locations of a reference point (e.g. front center of the towing vehicle) that can be determined from a beacon and radar system, and instantaneous accelerations of this system, which come from driver maneuvers (accelerating, braking, steering, etc.) can be read from a data acquisition system installed on the towing vehicle. The output of the model is instantaneous polygons that render approximate outline of the towing vehicle system at any time point. The…
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Extending the Magic Formula Tire Model for Large Inflation Pressure Changes by Using Measurement Data from a Corner Module Test Rig

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Technische Universität Ilmenau-Kristian Höpping, Klaus Augsburg, Florian Büchner
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-02-0009
Published 2018-03-05 by SAE International in United States
Since the tire inflation pressure has a significant influence on safety, comfort and environmental behavior of a vehicle, the choice of the optimal inflation pressure is always a conflict of aims. The development of a highly dynamic Tire Pressure Control System (TPCS) can reduce the conflict of minimal rolling resistance and maximal traction. To study the influence of the tire inflation pressure on longitudinal tire characteristics under laboratory conditions, an experimental sensitivity analysis is performed using a multivalent usable Corner Module Test Rig (CMTR) developed by the Automotive Engineering Group at Technische Universität Ilmenau. The test rig is designed to analyze suspension system and tire characteristics on a roller of the recently installed 4 chassis roller dynamometer. Camber angle, toe angle and wheel load can be adjusted continuously. In addition, it is possible to control the temperature of the test environment between −20 °C and +45 °C. The results of the experimental study that covers a wide range of different wheel loads and inflation pressures for three different tire variations show a significant influence of the inflation…
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