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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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Determination of the Pressure Distribution Beneath Two- and Three-Inch Wide Racing Safety Belts

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors Racing-Thomas Gideon
Wayne state University-John W. Melvin, Paul C. Begeman
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2977
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This study examines the static pressure distribution under both width belts in the shoulder and the pelvis of 15 volunteer subjects. The subjects applied the belt loads to themselves through a lever and pulley system. The configuration of the belts simulated the typical arrangement of a six-point belted upright-seated racing driver. The pressure distribution between the belt and the volunteer's body was determined and recorded with Tek-Scan pressure sensing grids. The paper presents the results of the measurements by comparing the actual area of significant loading beneath the two widths and materials of both lap and shoulder belts. In, general, there no significant increase in loaded area for the wider belts.
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Dynamic Vehicle Weight Reduction and Safety Enhancement

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Nartron Corporation-Peter Strom
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2551
Published 2008-10-12 by SAE International in United States
The rising cost of fuel, global warming and the economy in general has increased awareness about the importance of vehicle weight as it relates to consumer cost savings at the gas pump. However, vehicle safety cannot be compromised at the expense of reduced weight, making it necessary to find a proper balance to satisfy all requirements. The Ultra brake rotor™ reduces weight by as much as 40% for each wheel which translates to significant improvements as defined by CAFE regulations. Fully compatible with original calipers and other wheel components, these rotors additionally provide enhanced vehicle reliability and performance. Independent laboratory tests demonstrate compliance to FMVSS 135, and a 40% increase in rotor and brake pad wear life. Weight reduction is achieved by casting an aluminum core structure around steel wear inserts to form a strong mechanical bond. The 2007 GM Yukon front rotor cast from traditional grey iron steel weighs 26 pounds, while an equivalent Ultra brake rotor part contains 8 pounds of steel and 9 pounds of aluminum for a total weight of 17…
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Design and Testing of a New Electric Parking Brake Actuator

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Automotive Research & Testing Center (ARTC)-Chien-Tai. Huang, Chien-Tzu Chen, Shou-Yi Cheng, Bo-Ruei Chen, Ming-Hu Huang
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2555
Published 2008-10-12 by SAE International in United States
Electric parking brake (EPB) system provides the roomy space for vehicles compared with traditional handbrake system. Combining a control unit realizes the intelligent functions, which make vehicles more convenient and secure, and avoid the vehicle damage and danger caused by the negligence of drivers.This paper provides a new concept design of the EPB system that has simple and low-cost characteristics. The testing results have proved the feasibility of this design. First we describe the working principle of this new design, and then introduce the arrangement of the testing system, followed by the discussion of experimental data. The last is conclusion paragraph.
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Resonant Inspection Applied to 100% Testing of Nodularity of Cast Ductile Iron

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

The Modal Shop, Inc.-Richard W. Bono, Gail R. Stultz
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2577
Published 2008-10-12 by SAE International in United States
Worldwide emphasis on defect-free manufacturing within the automotive sector has driven manufacturers to seek out cost effective methods of 100% inspection. To achieve zero defect output cost-effectively, manufacturers are making the commitment to move to online, automated nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. This type of online inspection requires accuracy, reliability, and high throughput. The Resonant Acoustic Method of Nondestructive Testing (RAM-NDT) is emerging as a type of resonant inspection that is a very efficient method of structural defect discrimination lending itself well to automated online implementation. This paper presents the fundamental principles of the resonant acoustic method and how it is been applied to testing nodularity in ductile iron brake calipers, rotors and anchors.
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Ejector-Type Cool Box

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

DENSO Corporation-Hiroshi Oshitani, Mika Gocho, Yoshiaki Takano
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0734
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Ejector Cycle® development has been under way to improve refrigeration cycle performance and increase its efficiency in light of global environmental conservation. Ejector Cycle® can be applied to cool boxes that cool drinks using the refrigeration cycle of the vehicle air-conditioning system. We commenced deliberating Ejector Cycle® application to improve cool box system performance. Difficulties associated with the cool box include the decline in cabin air-conditioning performance due to simultaneous operation of the cabin air conditioning and cool box. We have solved this problem by using an ejector to achieve continuous operation with two evaporator temperatures in the same system. Furthermore, we have configured the cycle to be suitable for vehicle air-conditioning systems, designed a high-efficiency two-stage variable ejector, and addressed various system problems. The result is successful commercialization of the Ejector system (hereafter, it is shown EJECS®(EJEctor Cycle System) cool box, which provides substantial performance improvements at a level unachievable using a conventional system (Cabin air conditioning: +15% in performance; Refrigeration: 20% reduction in cooling time). The development is outlined below.
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Glass Debris in Rollover Accidents

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Collision Safety Engineering, LC-T. R. Perl, J. E. Bready, R. P. Nordhagen, M. H. Warner
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0167
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles involved in rollover accidents almost always leave a debris trail. This debris trail is useful for the accident reconstructionist; it assists with identifying the vehicle path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle to ground contacts. Often it is helpful to know when and where various vehicle windows fractured. This is possible by comparing glass obtained from the accident site with glass samples still attached to the accident vehicle. The limit of this analysis is controlled by the manufacturing tolerance of the vehicle glass and the specified pane thickness. This paper presents a series of measurements made on various automotive tempered windows and presents: 1) the thickness range in individual panes, and 2) the thickness variation seen from pane to pane in the same vehicle.
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Evaluation Method for Pressure Loss using Energy Dissipation

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Denso Techno Corporation-Keiji Komura, Kazuhiko Murai, Akihiro Yoshikawa
Nagoya University-Yosuke Ueno, M. K. Ibrahim, Yoshiaki Nakamura
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0250
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to make more effective use of simulation, a new evaluation method on pressure loss has been developed. Using this method, the location and amount of pressure loss is clarified. As a result, enormous simulation data have been used effectively. The authors have confirmed the validity of the method about fundamental shapes.
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How NHTSA Would Analyze the Costs and Benefits of Fire Safety

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

NHTSA-James F. Simons
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0258
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to describe the general methodology used by NHTSA to perform cost-effectiveness analyses and cost-benefit analyses. This general method will then be directed towards how one could analyze fire countermeasures, providing two analyses as examples. First, for crash related fires, NHTSA's 2003 analysis on fuel tank integrity will be used. Second, for non-crash related fires, NHTSA's 2001 analysis of radiator caps will be used. The paper will describe what data sources were used to determine the target population, the severity of injuries, the costs of burns by injury severity, the cost of the fire countermeasures, etc. While not analyzing any specific fire countermeasure, the methodology will be described in enough detail that others could potentially follow the methodology and make estimates for their own purposes.
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Development of a Compact Torque Vectoring Axle for Primary or Secondary Axles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

BorgWarner TorqTransfer Systems-Dan Showalter
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0305
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There has been a recent demand for torque vectoring axles in premium sedans and high end sports vehicles. The improved handling and active safety resulting from this product is desirable in all vehicles. As the cost of these units is driven down, the applications should proliferate to lower cost vehicles. This paper is to introduce a torque vectoring axle assembly designed for low cost manufacturing methods to allow this proliferation.
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Virtual Rig Simulation in the Exhaust System Development

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Tenneco Company-Fulun Yang, Jason Hamilton, Henry Cheng
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1215
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A newly developed approach, Virtual Rig Simulation for exhaust, is introduced in this paper. An OEM exhaust system durability performance is simulated and simulation results are correlated to test results. The correlation results prove that the Virtual Rig Simulation predicates critical locations very well. The modal transient analysis is applied and input loading is from full event RLDA data. The advantage of the approach is that it can be applied in upfront design stage to predict exhaust system durability performance so that test cost and time are reduced significantly. Also, the presented approach is not only useful for exhaust system development but also useful for other product development.
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