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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Situation Awareness, Scenarios, and Secondary Tasks: Measuring Driver Performance and Safety Margins in Highly Automated Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Toyota Technical Center USA, Inc.-Joshua Domeyer, James Foley
University of Wisconsin-Madeleine Gibson, John Lee, Vindhya Venkatraman, Morgan Price, Jeffrey Lewis, Olivia Montgomery, Bilge Mutlu
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0145
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The rapid increase in the sophistication of vehicle automation demands development of evaluation protocols tuned to understanding driver-automation interaction. Driving simulators provide a safe and cost-efficient tool for studying driver-automation interaction, and this paper outlines general considerations for simulator-based evaluation protocols. Several challenges confront automation evaluation, including the limited utility of standard measures of driver performance (e.g., standard deviation of lane position), and the need to quantify underlying mental processes associated with situation awareness and trust. Implicitly or explicitly vehicle automation encourages drivers to disengage from driving and engage in other activities. Thus secondary tasks play an important role in both creating representative situations for automation use and misuse, as well as providing embedded measures of driver engagement. Latent hazards-hazards that exist in the road environment and merit driver attention, but do not materialize to require a driver response-have been used with great success for understanding the vulnerability of novice drivers. Latent hazards might provide a similarly useful index of driver attention to the road during periods where the automation is vulnerable to failure. With…
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Positioning Simulation Using a 3D Map and Verification of Positional Estimation Accuracy in Urban Areas Using Actual Measurement

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Satoru Komatsu, Akira Nagao
Tokyo University-Nobuaki Kubo
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0083
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Positional accuracy of GPS measurement has been based on simulation and actual measurement due to the difficulty of conducting 24-hour actual running tests. However, the conventional measurement is only based on brief evaluation; hence variability of positional accuracy which varies depending on measurement time and location had been an issue. Thus, it is significant to show the validity by the estimation of positional accuracy, and actual measurement using of lengthy simulation.In this study, actual measurement data in an urban area was obtained for long hours, and a simulation using 3D maps was implemented. A high precision positional measurement system was equipped on a vehicle in order to collect actual measurements and positional data at each measurement time. The data obtained by the measurement system was used as the reference coordinate for both the simulation and the actual measurements. Consequently, comparison between the simulation and actual measurement data on positional accuracy was able to be implemented for the first time. A dominant deterioration factor of positional accuracy is multipath error caused by reflection from the likes…
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Automotive Software Certification: Current Status and Challenges

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Toyota InfoTechnology Center USA-Huafeng Yu, Chung-Wei Lin, BaekGyu Kim
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0050
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Modern vehicles can have millions of lines of software, for vehicle control, infotainment, etc. The correctness and quality of the software play a key role in the safety of whole vehicles. In order to assure the safety, engineers give an effort to prove correctness of individual subsystems or their integration using testing or verification methods. One needs to eventually certify that the developed vehicle as a whole is indeed safe using the artifacts and evidences produced throughout the development cycle. Such a certification process helps to increase the safety confidence of the developed software and reduce OEM’s liability. However, software certification in automotive domain is not yet well established, compared to other safety-critical domains, such as avionics and medical devices. At the same time, safety-relevant standards and techniques, including ISO 26262 and assurance cases, have been well adopted. It finally promotes the adoption and development of software certification in the automotive industry. In this paper, we first present a survey of recent research in the domains of aviation, medical devices, and railway systems. After this…
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A Custom Integrated Circuit with On-chip Current-to-Digital Converters for Active Hydraulic Brake System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Toyota Motor Corporation-Hikaru Watanabe, Tsutomu Segawa, Takumi Okuhira, Hiroki Mima, Norishige Hoshikawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0091
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a custom integrated circuit (IC) on which circuit functions necessary for “Active Hydraulic Brake (AHB) system” are integrated, and its key component, “Current-to-Digital Converter” for solenoid current measurement. The AHB system, which realizes a seamless brake feeling for Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Regenerative Brake Cooperative Control of Hybrid Vehicle, and the custom IC are installed in the 4th-generation Prius released in 2015. In the AHB system, as linear solenoid valves are used for hydraulic brake pressure control, high-resolution and high-speed sensing of solenoid current with ripple components due to pulse width modulation (PWM) is one of the key technologies. The proposed current-to-digital converter directly samples the drain-source voltage of the sensing DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) on the IC, and digitizes it. The conversion characteristic is compensated for the DMOS onresistance variation by an ADC reference compensation technique. A hybrid Active-Passive ΔΣ A/D converter is adopted and realizes small chip area and low power dissipation. A post-processing digital CIC (cascaded integrator-comb) decimation filter removes the ripple components…
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CAN FD Network Design Hints and Recommendations

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

CAN in Automation-Holger Zeltwanger
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0060
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The CAN FD protocol internationally standardized in ISO 11898-1:2015 just describes how to implement it into silicon. The ISO 11898-2:2016 standard specifies the physical media attachment (PMA) sub-layer of the CAN (FD) physical layer. The design of CAN FD networks is not in the scope of these standards. In general, the physical layer design of CAN FD networks requires more attention compared with Classical CAN networks. First recommendations have been developed. Different standardization bodies have already specified or are in the process of specifying higher-layer protocols, for example ISO for on-board diagnostic, ASAM for calibration, etc.
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JUST SIMPLIFY: Clone Detection for Simulink Controller Models

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Model Engineering Solutions-Elke Salecker, Ingo Stuermer
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0026
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Huge Simulink controller models often consists of (almost) identical subsystems, very often resulting from copy-and-paste operations and only slight adaptation of the subsystems by the model engineer. Although this “copy-and-paste” approach might help to achieve initial results very fast, in the long-run such subsystem clones can create considerable problems. Like code clones, model clones increase the effort for testing and maintenance. Model clones also tend to influence the code efficiency and code quality in a negative way in case the Simulink model is used as a basis for code generation. JUST SIMPLIFY is an approach for detecting model clones in a Simulink model automatically based on model metrics calculations. This approach has been implemented in our model metrics and complexity measurement tool M-XRAY. JUST SIMPLIFY allows reducing the effort for model refactoring by avoiding time consuming manual search for model clones. As a result, the effort for testing and for maintaining models can be reduced and the code quality can be improved significantly.
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MEMS Oscillators with Improved Resilience for Harsh Automotive Environments

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

SiTime Corporation-Carl Arft, Yin-Chen Lu, Jehangir Parvereshi
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0101
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Oscillators are key components in automotive electronics systems. For example, a typical automotive camera module may have three or more oscillators, providing the clocks for microcontrollers, Ethernet controllers, and video chipsets. These oscillators have historically been built around a quartz crystal resonator connected to an analog sustaining circuit driving the crystal to vibrate at its resonant frequency. However, quartz-based devices suffer from poor performance and reliability in harsh automotive environments. SiTime has developed timing solutions based on silicon micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology that exhibit better electromagnetic noise rejection and better performance under shock and vibration. In this paper, we first discuss the design and manufacturing of the MEMS-based device, with emphasis on the specific design aspects that improve reliability and resilience in harsh automotive environments. These aspects include the SOI-based MEMS fabrication process, the oscillator and state-of-the-art temperature compensation architecture, and the manufacturing and packaging process. We then describe the test methods used to evaluate the resilience of the device, including electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS), and performance during shock and vibration. The results show that the…
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Incorporating ISO 26262 Concepts in an Automated Testing Toolchain Using Simulink Design Verifier™

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

WMG, University of Warwick-Siddartha Khastgir, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Paul Jennings
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0032
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of ISO 26262 concepts has brought important changes in the software development process for automotive software. While making the process more robust by introducing various additional methods of verification and validation, there has been a substantial increase in the development time. Thus, test automation and front loading approaches have become important to meet product timelines and quality. This paper proposes automated testing methods using formal analysis tools like Simulink Design Verifier™ (SLDV) for boundary value testing and interface testing to address the demands of ISO 26262 concepts at unit and component level. In addition, the method of automated boundary value testing proposed differs from the traditional methods and the authors offer an argument as to why the traditional boundary value testing is not required at unit (function) level. There are two aspects of the proposed method: automated test case generation and automated test case execution. The paper discusses the benefits of automatic test case execution when combined with automatic test case generation. Traditional test automation implements the former and has limited advantages. One…
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Approaches for Secure and Efficient In-Vehicle Key Management

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

DENSO Corporation-Takeshi Sugashima
ETAS K.K.-Dennis Kengo Oka, Camille Vuillaume
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0070
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Modern vehicles utilize various functionalities that require security solutions such as secure in-vehicle communication and ECU authentication. Cryptographic keys are the basis for such security solutions. We propose two approaches for secure and efficient invehicle key management. In both approaches, an ECU acting as a Key Master in the vehicle is required. The first approach is based on SHE. The Key Master generates and distributes new keys to all ECU based on the SHE key update protocol. The second approach performs key establishment based on key derivation. The Key Master sends a trigger in form of a counter and all ECUs derive new keys based on the received counter value and pre-shared keys. It is thus possible to handle in-vehicle key management without the need for an OEM backend to manage all keys. This reduces cost and complexity of the solution. It avoids using the same keys in a vehicle for long periods of time since keys can be updated regularly within the vehicle without any external interaction. We have implemented the approaches on a…
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Quantifying Electrical System Worst-Case Performance Prior to Prototype Test and Production

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Mentor Graphics Corp.-Michael Jensen
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0074
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Electronics now control or drive a large part of automotive system design and development, from audio system enhancements to improvements in engine and drive-train performance, and innovations in passenger safety. Industry estimates suggest that electronic systems account for more than 30% of the cost of a new automobile and represent approximately 90% of the innovations in automotive design. As electronic content increases, so does the possibility of electronic system failure and the potential for compromised vehicle safety. Even when designed properly, electronics can be the weakest link in automotive system performance due to variations in component reliability and environmental conditions. Engineers need to understand worst-case system performance as early in the design process as possible. While traditional electronic design flows use modeling and simulation to analyze system performance prior to prototype, test, and production, limits in model fidelity and simulator capability limit worst-case design evaluation options. However, with the right combination of modeling techniques and simulation capabilities, it is possible to improve model and simulation fidelity to include advanced worst-case effects such as aging, and…
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