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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Estimation of the Incoming Wave Characteristics by MUSIC Method Using Virtual Array Antenna

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Satoru Komatsu
Kitami Institute of Technology-Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0222
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditionally, the suitability of radio receivers and similar devices for automotive use has been evaluated by evaluating their reception characteristics in relation to transmitted waves via repeated driving tests. This method of evaluation presents issues in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. A method of evaluating the suitability of FM receivers for vehicle fitting using a virtual propagation environment created on a PC (termed the Two-Stage method) has been developed in order to address these issues.The major challenge in the Two-Stage method is the creation of an actual propagation environment on a PC. A test-based incoming wave estimation technology able to accurately estimate the characteristics of actual propagation environments is therefore essential.The estimation of incoming FM waves necessitates large array antennas. In addition, the incoming waves become coherent multipath waves. It is challenging to separate multipath waves, and this represents an issue for accurate estimation.Seeking to address these challenges, the research discussed in this paper developed a Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method using a virtual array antenna. The developed method has made it possible for the…
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How to Save $20 per Car by Optimization of the E/E System?

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Zuken GmbH-Reinhold Blank
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0153
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, the electrical and electronic system in vehicles is one of the core systems - with big influence on functionality and quality. And it is - besides the engine - the most expensive part of the vehicle. The ongoing pressure on saving cost (and weight) is also a major challenge to the developers of the E/E system. Every cent saved on a car creates substantial savings, since most systems are applied to platforms with several million cars per year.A cost saving target of $20 per car (without negative influence on the functionality and quality) sounds impossible for most insiders.This presentation identifies some areas where the potential for savings is not (fully) exhausted. For each area there are examples out of the global automotive industry where substantial savings with $10 or more have been achieved.Furthermore, the presentation will propose approaches for “Value engineering” and “Redesign2Cost”. It will also look at the requirements for the tools to support such an approach together with aspects such as required data or engineering skills.
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Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sizing using Ordinal Optimization

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

American Univ. of Beirut-Sami H. Karaki, Rafika Dinnawi, Rabih Jabr, Riad Chedid
University of Applied Sciences Esslingen-Ferdinand Panik
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0155
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An optimal design methodology is developed in this paper for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) based on ordinal optimization (OO) and dynamic programming (DP); the optimal design aims to determine the appropriate sizes of the hydrogen tank, fuel cell, battery, and motor for the purpose of minimizing investment and operational cost given some specification of the car range, the road type and its gradeability. The DP simulates the operation of the vehicle for a set of specified components' sizes for given driving cycles and provides the total vehicle cost per year. The OO method offers an efficient approach for optimization by focusing on ranking and selecting a finite set of “good enough” alternatives through two models: a simple model and an accurate model. The OO program uses the specified sizes of the components that uniformly sample the search space and evaluates these designs using a simple but fast model. As per OO theory, the evaluated designs are sorted in an ascending order and the top-s design solutions are selected. An ordered performance curve method…
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Enhancing Sound Quality in Bluetooth Audio Systems Using Kalman Filtering

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center-Mahdi N. Ali
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0226
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Bluetooth communication systems are constrained to use a low cost filtering technology, which requires designers to implement inexpensive noise reduction techniques. Improving Bluetooth sound and audio quality has been a topic of research over the years. Sound and audio quality in vehicles are areas that still require improvements in order to achieve better customer experience when using Bluetooth communication systems.This paper proposes a low cost, simple, and effective method to reduce noise in Bluetooth systems using Kalman Filtering. Our novel method is proposed to be used in vehicular Bluetooth applications. We have created a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to validate the proposed method. Results have demonstrated significant noise reduction and improvement to the processed speech signals.
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Model-Based Optimization for an AMT Clutch Control during the Vehicle Starting

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Technische Universität Berlin-Hua Huang, Di Di, Yuqiang Chu, Clemens Guehmann
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0161
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the continuous growth in the emission requirements and higher riding comfort demand, the shift quality becomes more and more an important evaluation index of the automated transmission control algorithms. Traditionally, the shift quality is assessed subjectively by the driver's feeling and then adjusted based on the calibration engineer experience. This classical calibration has disadvantages, such as low reproducibility of the shifting event and a high dependence on the driver's driving habit, so here a model-based multi-objective optimization method is proposed, and the optimization of the clutch control parameters during the vehicle starting is used as an example.Firstly, a Modelica® based vehicle model is introduced. A second-order sliding mode control is applied to track the clutch position trajectory. The clutch engagement point and the clutch engagement speed in the slipping stage are taken as the optimization objects. The shift quality, clutch engagement duration and mean longitudinal jerk during the vehicle starting, are taken as the evaluation criteria. An evolutionary multi-objective optimization method (non-dominated neighbor immune algorithm, NNIA) is chosen to find out the optimal control…
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Automated Verification and Validation Methods for Transmission Control Software

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

FEV GmbH-Johannes Richenhagen
FEV North America, Inc.-Madhura Medikeri, Thomas Tasky
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0163
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing popularity of seamless gear changing and smooth driving experience along with the need for high fuel efficiency, transmission system development has rapidly increased in complexity. So too has transmission control software while quality requirements are high and time-to-market is short. As a result, extensive testing and documentation along with quick and efficient development methods are required.FEV responds to these challenges by developing and integrating a transmission software product line with an automated verification and validation process according to the concept of Continuous Integration (CI). Hence, the following paper outlines a software architecture called “PERSIST” where complexity is reduced by a modular architecture approach. Additionally, modularity enables testability and tracking of quality defects to their root cause. To tap this potential, the software is tested, documented and built every night with a high degree of automation in order to uncover quality risks earlier in development.The effect of that approach is shown by examples from a 7-gear series transmission project. Continuous testing and monitoring leads to a steadily increasing quality level while the project…
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Insights on the Configuration and Performances of SOME/IP Service Discovery

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Daimler AG - Mercedes-Benz Cars-Jan Seyler
RealTime-At-Work (RTaW)-Loïc Fejoz
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0197
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Scalable Service-Oriented Middleware on IP (SOME/IP) is a proposal aimed at providing service-oriented communication in vehicles. SOME/IP nodes are able to dynamically discover and subscribe to available services through the SOME/IP Service Discovery protocol (SOME/IP SD). In this context, a key performance criterion to achieve the required responsiveness is the subscription latency that is the time it takes for a client to subscribe to a service. In this paper we provide a recap of SOME/SD and list a number of assumptions based on what we can foresee about the use of SOME/IP in the automotive domain. Then, we identify the factors having an effect on the subscription latency, and, by sensitivity analysis, quantify their importance regarding the worst-case service subscription latency. The analysis and experiments in this study provide practical insights into how to best configure SOME/IP SD protocol.
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Gradient and Mass Estimation from CAN Based Data for a Light Passenger Car

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Jaguar Cars-Phil Barber
University of Bristol-Robert Wragge-Morley, Guido Herrmann, Stuart Burgess
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0201
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
We present a method for the estimation of vehicle mass and road gradient for a light passenger vehicle. The estimation method uses information normally available on the vehicle CAN bus without the addition of extra sensors. A composite parameter estimation algorithm incorporating a nonlinear adaptive observer structure uses vehicle speed over ground and driving torque to estimate mass and road gradient. A system of filters is used to avoid deriving acceleration directly from wheel speed. In addition, a novel data fusion method makes use of the regressor structure to introduce information from other sensors in the vehicle. The dynamics of the additional sensors must be able to be parameterised using the same parameterisation as the complete vehicle system dynamics. In this case we make use of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which is part of the vehicle safety and Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS). Therefore, a method using some filtering and supervisory logic is employed to give a sensible update behaviour for the vehicle mass estimation algorithm. The main function of the supervisor is to…
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Design and Control of Vehicle Trailer with Onboard Power Supply

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Kettering University-Sibi Visht Sankara Narayanan, Diane Peters
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0132
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Typically, when someone needs to perform occasional towing tasks, such as towing a boat on a trailer, they have two choices. They can either purchase a larger, more powerful vehicle than they require for their regular usage, or they can rent a larger vehicle when they need to tow something. In this project, we propose a third alternative: a trailer with an on-board power supply, which can be towed by a small vehicle. This system requires a means of sensing how much power the trailer's power supply should provide, and an appropriate control system to provide this power. In this project, we design and model the trailer, a standard small car, and the control system, and evaluate the concept's feasibility. We have selected a suitable power source for the trailer, a DC motor, coupled directly to the trailer's single drive wheel, which allow us to dispense with the need for a differential. The trailer hitch is designed to include force sensing capability, to determine whether the trailer is moving under its own power or being…
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Design and Optimization of Hardware-Efficient Filters for Active Safety Algorithms

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Delphi Poland-Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Pawel Skruch, Krzysztof Kogut, Paweł Markiewicz, Mateusz Orlowski, Maciej Różewicz, Anna Ryszka, Dominik Sasin
University Technology and Life Sciences-Marta Kolasa, Tomasz Talaska
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0152
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper we present an example design process of filters used in automotive industry. Signal preprocessing is very important operation in active safety algorithms. Such algorithms usually take into account the vehicle state that includes position, velocities and accelerations of the car. On the basis of these data, as well as the parameters and trajectories of external objects “observed” by the car, the algorithms make decisions about various safety actions. Designer of such algorithms must assure an appropriate quality of such signals, which usually means a proper filtering. In this paper we focus on selected important aspects of the filter design process. The main objectives of the presented investigations is to obtain such filters that ensure a sufficient rejection of undesired components from the signal and at the same time that do not introduce too high delay to the processed signals. In our work we consider linear filters such as finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) filters of different types and lengths, as well as nonlinear filters - in this case…
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