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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Virtual Dominant Sensor for Observability Improvement in Rotating Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

SDRL, University of Cincinnati-Shrirang Deshpande, Randall Allemang
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2281
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Spectral maps and order tracks are tools which are susceptible to improper sensor location on rotating machinery and to measurement noise. On a complex/large rotating system, the major behavior in a particular direction cannot be observed by using standard digital signal processing averaging techniques on different sensor outputs. Also, measurement noise cannot be reduced by applying averaging - due to the slew rate of the system.A newly developed technique tested on experimental data, is presented which uses singular value decomposition (SVD) as its basis to improve the observability of rotating systems. By using data acquired from multiple accelerometers on a machine, singular values - obtained from a SVD of the cross-power matrix at each 2-D point in the frequency-RPM domain - can be plotted in a color-map format similar to a RPM spectral map. These “Singular value maps” can be used to find the best possible sensor combination on a complex rotating system like a powertrain and to observe the system as one unit in a particular direction retaining major and inherent dynamic activity and…
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Application of a New Perceptually-Accurate Tonality Assessment Method

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

HEAD acoustics GmbH-Roland Sottek
HEAD acoustics Inc-Wade Bray
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2282
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
For many years in vehicle and other product noise assessments, tonality measurement procedures such as the Tone-to-Noise Ratio, Prominence Ratio and DIN 45681 Tonality have been available to quantify the audibility of prominent tones. Especially through the recent past as product sound pressure levels have become lower, disagreements between perceptions and measurements have increased across a wide range of product categories including automotive, Information Technology and residential products. One factor is that tonality perceptions are caused by spectrally-elevated noise bands of various widths and slopes as well as by pure tones, and usually escape measure in extant tools. Near-superpositions of discrete tones and elevated narrow noise bands are increasingly found in low-level technical sounds. Existing pure-tone methodologies tend to misrecognize an elevated noise band as general masking lowering the audibility of a tone in the measured vicinity, whereas perceptually they add. To address such issues a new psychoacoustically-based tonality model is presented which evaluates the nonlinear and time-dependent loudness of both tonal and broadband components, separating them via the autocorrelation function (ACF) and giving their…
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Instrumentation, Acquisition and Data Processing Requirements for Accurate Combustion Noise Measurements

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Chris Hocking, Simon Antonov
University of Wisconsin-Arsham Shahlari
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2284
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The higher cylinder peak pressure and pressure rise rate of modern diesel and gasoline fueled engines tend to increase combustion noise while customers demand lower noise. The multiple degrees of freedom in engine control and calibration mean there is more scope to influence combustion noise but this must first be measured before it can be balanced with other attributes. An efficient means to realize this is to calculate combustion noise from the in-cylinder pressure measurements that are routinely acquired as part of the engine development process. This publication reviews the techniques required to ensure accurate and precise combustion noise measurements. First, the dynamic range must be maximized by using an analogue to digital converter with sufficient number of bits and selecting an appropriate range in the test equipment. Second, the encoder resolution (sampling rate) must be chosen in order to achieve the required frequency range and to avoid aliasing that is typical in event-based acquisition systems. Third, to calculate combustion noise the resulting cylinder pressure must be suitably chosen or windowed before applying an FFT…
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Differential Drive Assisted Steering Control for an In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Tongji University-Bo Leng, Lu Xiong, Chi Jin, Jun Liu, Zhuoping Yu
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1599
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For an electric vehicle driven by four in-wheel motors, the torque of each wheel can be controlled precisely and independently. A closed-loop control method of differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) has been proposed to improve vehicle steering properties based on those advantages. With consideration of acceleration requirement, a three dimensional characteristic curve that indicates the relation between torque and angle of the steering wheel at different vehicle speeds was designed as a basis of the control system. In order to deal with the saturation of motor's output torque under certain conditions, an anti-windup PI control algorithm was designed. Simulations and vehicle tests, including pivot steering test, lemniscate test and central steering test were carried out to verify the performance of the DDAS in steering portability and road feeling. Results showed that with the proposed DDAS, the reference steering wheel torque can be tracked satisfactorily, drivers' handling burdens were reduced efficiently and the vehicle steering performance was improved.
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Estimation of the Incoming Wave Characteristics by MUSIC Method Using Virtual Array Antenna

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Satoru Komatsu
Kitami Institute of Technology-Suguru Imai, Kenji Taguchi, Tatsuya Kashiwa
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0222
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditionally, the suitability of radio receivers and similar devices for automotive use has been evaluated by evaluating their reception characteristics in relation to transmitted waves via repeated driving tests. This method of evaluation presents issues in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. A method of evaluating the suitability of FM receivers for vehicle fitting using a virtual propagation environment created on a PC (termed the Two-Stage method) has been developed in order to address these issues.The major challenge in the Two-Stage method is the creation of an actual propagation environment on a PC. A test-based incoming wave estimation technology able to accurately estimate the characteristics of actual propagation environments is therefore essential.The estimation of incoming FM waves necessitates large array antennas. In addition, the incoming waves become coherent multipath waves. It is challenging to separate multipath waves, and this represents an issue for accurate estimation.Seeking to address these challenges, the research discussed in this paper developed a Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method using a virtual array antenna. The developed method has made it possible for the…
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How to Save $20 per Car by Optimization of the E/E System?

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Zuken GmbH-Reinhold Blank
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0153
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, the electrical and electronic system in vehicles is one of the core systems - with big influence on functionality and quality. And it is - besides the engine - the most expensive part of the vehicle. The ongoing pressure on saving cost (and weight) is also a major challenge to the developers of the E/E system. Every cent saved on a car creates substantial savings, since most systems are applied to platforms with several million cars per year.A cost saving target of $20 per car (without negative influence on the functionality and quality) sounds impossible for most insiders.This presentation identifies some areas where the potential for savings is not (fully) exhausted. For each area there are examples out of the global automotive industry where substantial savings with $10 or more have been achieved.Furthermore, the presentation will propose approaches for “Value engineering” and “Redesign2Cost”. It will also look at the requirements for the tools to support such an approach together with aspects such as required data or engineering skills.
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Short Term Prediction of a Vehicle's Velocity Trajectory Using ITS

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Johannes Kepler University Linz-Dominik Moser, Harald Waschl, Roman Schmied, Hajrudin Efendic, Luigi del Re
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0295
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Modern cars feature a variety of different driving assistance systems, which aim to improve driving comfort and safety as well as fuel consumption. Due to the technical advances and the possibility to consider vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategies have received significant attention from both research and industrial communities.The performance of such systems can be enhanced if the future velocity of the surrounding traffic can be predicted. Generally, human driving behavior is a complex process and influenced by several environmental impacts. In this work a stochastic model of the velocity of a preceding vehicle based on the incorporation of available information sources such as V2I, V2V and radar information is presented. The main influences on the velocity prediction considered in this approach are current and previous velocity measurements and traffic light signals. For practical applications a model must capture the driver's reaction on the traffic situation as well as the vehicle dynamics. Here a Bayesian network approach is followed which provides a compact representation of the variable dependencies and…
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Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sizing using Ordinal Optimization

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

American Univ. of Beirut-Sami H. Karaki, Rafika Dinnawi, Rabih Jabr, Riad Chedid
University of Applied Sciences Esslingen-Ferdinand Panik
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0155
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An optimal design methodology is developed in this paper for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) based on ordinal optimization (OO) and dynamic programming (DP); the optimal design aims to determine the appropriate sizes of the hydrogen tank, fuel cell, battery, and motor for the purpose of minimizing investment and operational cost given some specification of the car range, the road type and its gradeability. The DP simulates the operation of the vehicle for a set of specified components' sizes for given driving cycles and provides the total vehicle cost per year. The OO method offers an efficient approach for optimization by focusing on ranking and selecting a finite set of “good enough” alternatives through two models: a simple model and an accurate model. The OO program uses the specified sizes of the components that uniformly sample the search space and evaluates these designs using a simple but fast model. As per OO theory, the evaluated designs are sorted in an ascending order and the top-s design solutions are selected. An ordered performance curve method…
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Enhancing Sound Quality in Bluetooth Audio Systems Using Kalman Filtering

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center-Mahdi N. Ali
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0226
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Bluetooth communication systems are constrained to use a low cost filtering technology, which requires designers to implement inexpensive noise reduction techniques. Improving Bluetooth sound and audio quality has been a topic of research over the years. Sound and audio quality in vehicles are areas that still require improvements in order to achieve better customer experience when using Bluetooth communication systems.This paper proposes a low cost, simple, and effective method to reduce noise in Bluetooth systems using Kalman Filtering. Our novel method is proposed to be used in vehicular Bluetooth applications. We have created a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to validate the proposed method. Results have demonstrated significant noise reduction and improvement to the processed speech signals.
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Real-time Determination of Driver's Driving Behavior during Car Following

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0297
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes an approach that characterizes a driver's driving behavior and style in real-time during car-following drives. It uses an online learning of the evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model combined with the Markov model. The inputs fed into the proposed algorithm are from the measured signals of on-board sensors equipped with current vehicles, including the relative distance sensors for Adaptive Cruise Control feature and the accelerometer for Electronic Stability Control feature. The approach is verified using data collected using a test vehicle from several car-following test trips. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been shown in the paper.
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