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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Comprehensive Array Measurements of In-Car Sound Field in Magnitude and Phase for Active Sound Generation and Noise Control

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

AVL LIST GmbH-Stephan Brandl, Christian Kranzler
University of Music and Performing Arts-Matthias Frank, Franz Zotter, Alois Sontacchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2046
Published 2014-06-30 by SAE International in United States
When employing in-car active sound generation (ASG) and active noise cancellation (ANC), the accurate knowledge of the vehicle interior sound pressure distribution in magnitude as well as phase is paramount. Revisiting the ANC concept, relevant boundary conditions in spatial sound fields will be addressed. Moreover, within this study the controllability and observability requirements in case of ASG and ANC were examined in detail.This investigation focuses on sound pressure measurements using a 24 channel microphone array at different heights near the head of the driver. A shaker at the firewall and four loudspeakers of an ordinary in-car sound system have been investigated in order to compare their sound fields. Measurements have been done for different numbers of passengers, with and without a dummy head and real person on the driver seat. Transfer functions have been determined with a log-swept sine technique.According to the measurements, the shape of the sound field produced by the shaker is more balanced than one produced by the loudspeakers, albeit the shaker's frequency response is limited to low frequencies. As sound field…
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A Novel Method for Side Slip Angle Estimation of Omni-Directional Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

University of Wollongong-Boyuan Li, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0303
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The omni-directional vehicle is an innovative vehicle, in which the in-wheel steering motor and in-wheel driving motor are integrated into each wheel of the vehicle so that each wheel can be independently controlled to have traction, braking, and turning motions to improve the vehicle's mobility, handling and stability. To realize good performance, various control strategies have been proposed, like the active steering control and the direct yaw moment control, where the accurate slip angle information is critical to these control strategies. However, in practice, the side slip angle is hard or expensive to be measured for a passenger vehicle, therefore, different estimation methods have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, a novel side slip angle estimation method is proposed for the omni-directional vehicle that has four independent steering motors. This method includes the estimation of total alignment torque and side slip angle, and only needs the measurements of steering angles and steering motor currents, which are available by using angle sensors and current sensors embedded with the in-wheel steering motors. Numerical simulations are…
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Comparison of Torque Vectoring Control Strategies for a IWM Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Politecnico di Milano-Edoardo Sabbioni, Federico Cheli, Michele Vignati, Stefano Melzi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0860
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, concerns for environmental pollution and oil price stimulated the demand for vehicles based on technologies alternative to traditional IC engines. Nowadays several carmakers include hybrid vehicles among their offer and first full electric vehicles appear on the market. Among the different layout of the electric power-train, four in-wheel motors appear to be one of the most attractive. Besides increasing the inner room, this architecture offers the interesting opportunity of easily and efficiently distribute the driving/braking torque on the four wheels. This characteristic can be exploited to generate a yaw moment (torque vectoring) able to increase lateral stability and to improve the handling of a vehicle. The present paper presents and compares two different torque vectoring control strategies for an electric vehicle with four in-wheel motors. Performances of the control strategies are evaluated by means of numerical simulations of open and closed loop maneuvers. Energy demands of the two control strategies are also estimated.
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Application of Auto-Coding for Rapid and Efficient Motor Control Development

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Delphi Automotive-James Walters, Cahya Harianto, Edward Kelly, Tanto Sugiarto
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0305
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In hybrid and electric vehicles, the control of the electric motor is a critical component of vehicle functions such as motoring, generating, engine-starting and braking. The efficient and accurate control of motor torque is performed by the motor controller. It is a complex system incorporating sensor sampling, data processing, controls, diagnostics, and 3-phase Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) generation which are executed in sub-100 uSec periods. Due to the fast execution rates, care must be taken in the software coding phase to ensure the algorithms will not exceed the target processor's throughput capability.Production motor control development often still follows the path of customer requirements, component requirements, simulation, hand-code, and verification test due to the concern for processor throughput. In the case of vehicle system controls, typically executed no faster than 5-10 mSec periods, auto-coding tools are used for algorithm development as well as testing. The advantages of auto-coding to greatly speed the development process by linking the tools for simulation, code generation and testing early in the development process as well as to more easily investigate…
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An Integrated Methodology for Defining, Modeling, and Validating Complex Automotive Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Dassault Systemes-Michael LaLande
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0760
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Systems engineering is not a new discipline for todays automotive OEMs and suppliers. So, why is it that many feel the discipline is under-utilized or not utilized at all in main-stream product development? For those that do believe systems engineering is a key activity in the development cycle, why is it common to disagree on a definition of what it is or how it manifests itself in the development cycle?If we examine the development activity of leading OEM's and suppliers in any industry, there can be no doubt that product development is a complex and intensive activity. Many disciplines are utilized with many specialized skills deployed throughout the lifecycle of the typical product, and even more so in the automotive industry. One can point to several processes that seem to indicate the presence of systems engineering, yet the ability to clearly define whether or not - and to what degree - we leverage systems engineering is still difficult. This paper will explore the benefits of looking at systems engineering as a core process from which…
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Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Honda-Yutaka Horiuchi, Takashi Yanagi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0063
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Honda has developed an “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System” that can achieve stable cornering performance and agile handling. We believe the issue that should be resolved in the next generation of ESC is the expansion of stability and agility into the general operation area. We examined how to accomplish this aim, and control of the independent rear toe angle was decided to be an appropriate method. In addition, a method for mounting the system without using a dedicated suspension was proposed. If left and right toe angles can be controlled independently, toe angle control and normal 4WS control become possible at the same time. In this paper, we will discuss the fundamental principle of independent toe angle control and the system configuration. Also, “INOMAMA Handling” (at driver's will) achieved by this system, as well as the fun and safe driving that are achieved as a result will be shown.
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Diagnostics Development for Cost-Effective Temperature Sensor based Particulate Matter OBD Method

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Bosal Emission Control Systems-Robert Cloudt
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1550
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A particulate matter On-Board Diagnostics method based on temperature sensing is demonstrated. The concept applies a detection filter downstream of the main particulate filter and a flow diversion pipe. A small fraction of the main exhaust flow is diverted through the detection filter. In case the main soot filter has some leakage, soot will collect on the detection filter where it reduces the filter's permeability. As a result the diverted flow is reduced. This effect is sensed by a temperature sensor placed downstream of the detection filter because the change of diverted mass flow results in a change of heating rate. This principle allows particulate filter diagnostics based on cost-effective and readily available sensing technology.Comprehensive diagnostics software is developed to interpret and assess the temperature signal. The developed diagnostics software detects particulate filter filtration inefficiency and performs plausibility checks. The concept is demonstrated using an instrumented test vehicle with purposely damaged particulate filter. The diagnostics prove successful in detecting a filtration inefficiency fault that leads to particulate matter emissions close to the 12 mg/km 2017…
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A Simple Method to Insure Bus-to-Bus Safety in Dual-Voltage Automotive Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Exponent Inc.-Thomas A. Keim
ePlanet Capital-Rupam Shrivastava
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0244
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In some automotive electrical systems, it is advantageous to use power supplies and loads at two or more voltages. Often it is desirable to retain the single wire power architecture, with the car body providing the return circuit. A major difficulty in achieving this end is the matter of dealing with the possibility of a short circuit between feed wires at different voltages. It can be shown that source-side fuses cannot be relied upon to return the system to a safe state in all cases.Substantial effort was applied to this problem in the early years of the 21st century, but the results were less than completely satisfactory. Using entirely separate cable harnesses for each voltage, with physically separated routing, minimizes the risk of such a short occurring in the harness. However, the use of more than one harness imposes a substantial cost penalty, and this solution does not provide an answer for the case where the short occurs at or within a load being serviced by more than one voltage.Complicated sensing circuits with floating solid…
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DSI3 Sensor to Master Decoder using Symbol Pattern Recognition

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Infineon Technologies AG-David Levy
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0252
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The newly released Distributed System Interface 3 (DSI3) Bus Standard specification defines three modulation levels form which 16 valid symbols are coded. This complex structure is best decoded with symbol pattern recognition. This paper proposes a simplification of the correlation score calculation that sharply reduces the required number of operations. Additionally, the paper describes how the pattern recognition is achieved using correlation scores and a decoding algorithm. The performance of this method is demonstrated by mean of simulations with different load models between the master and the sensors and varying noise injection on the channel. We prove than the pattern recognition can decode symbols without any error for up to 24dBm.
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Analysis of Software Update in Connected Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Visteon Electronics-Husein Dakroub, Robert Cadena
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0256
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The substantial increase of electronic systems and processors in vehicles is increasing the already remarkable amount of software code, generating thousands of software-related recalls according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), leading to frequent customer updates. Current software updating methods are inconvenient for customers and dealers alike, requiring a significant amount of time and expensive hardware to implement. With Wi-Fi technology and embedded modems entering vehicles, several OEMs have already taken an innovative approach with Over-The-Air (OTA) technology. OTA updating has shown to be a proven method in the telecom industry with tens of millions of phones equipped with OTA capabilities and millions of successful OTA updates performed each year, contributing to a reliable and efficient method of updating. This paper analyzes the different ways OTA is currently being used to successfully achieve in-vehicle software updates. This paper also presents the results of a questionnaire conducted to assess the familiarity and acceptance of software update technologies. This paper concludes with an analysis of the questionnaire results and the authors' preferred implementation method of…
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