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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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A Control Allocation Algorithm for Improving the Fail-Safe Performance of an Electric Vehicle Brake System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Beihang Univ.-Chong Feng, Nenggen Ding, Yongling He, Guoyan Xu, Feng Gao
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0187
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The ample electrical power supply makes brake-by-wire technology more suitable for application in electric vehicles than in conventional vehicles. The fail-safe performance of a brake-by-wire system is a key factor regarding its application on production vehicles. A new control allocation algorithm for improving the fail-safe performance of an electric vehicle brake system is proposed. The electric vehicle is equipped with a four-wheel independent brake-by-wire and steer-by-wire system. The main objective of the algorithm is to maintain the vehicle braking performance as close to the desired level as possible by reallocating the control inputs to the actuators in cases of partial or full failure of the brake-by-wire system. The control algorithm is developed using a two degrees of freedom vehicle model. A pseudo control vector is calculated by a sliding mode controller to minimize the difference between the desired and actual vehicle motions. A pseudo-inverse controller then allocates the control inputs according to the pseudo control vector and the failure mode which is assumed to have been determined by some diagnostic algorithms. The control algorithm is…
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System Security and System Safety Engineering: Differences and Similarities and a System Security Engineering Process Based on the ISO 26262 Process Framework

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Chrysler Group LLC-Barbara J. Czerny
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1419
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Today's vehicles contain a number of safety-critical systems designed to help improve overall vehicle safety. Such systems may control vital vehicle functions such as steering, braking and/or propulsion independently of the driver. In today's vehicles, much emphasis has been placed on helping ensure that these safety-critical vehicle systems operate as intended. Applying rigorous system safety engineering principles in developing these safety-critical automotive systems helps ensure that they operate as desired and expected. Less emphasis has been placed to-date on helping ensure cybersecurity of cyber-physical automotive systems. However, this is changing as both the world and the automotive industry become more aware of the potential ramifications of cyber-attacks on vehicles.As with system safety, applying a rigorous system security engineering process to the development of cyber-physical automotive systems is beneficial and will help reduce the likelihood of successful attacks on vehicles. System security and system safety interact with one another and cannot be considered in isolation. However, there are also differences between system security and system safety that require unique engineering activities to be performed to address…
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Intelligent ECU End of Line Testing to Support ISO26262 Functional Safety Requirements

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hanyang Univ.-Il hong Suh
Hyundai KEFICO-Chang Yul Choe, Minho Ro
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0403
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The recent adoption of the ISO26262 Functional Safety Standard has lead to the need for a greater degree of rigor in the technical, organizational and process aspects of electronic ECU engineering. One new facet of this standard also covers (in part 9.7) the analysis of dependent failures at manufacturing time, not only the microcontroller, but also for the plethora of connected system ASICs, input circuits, output drivers and communication devices in the PCB of the ECU. This paper will describe the CAN based end of line ECU self test system that was implemented at a major tier 1 supplier to address the issues of efficiently gaining a high degree of diagnostic coverage of single point faults and latent faults in highly integrated automotive ECUs. It will outline the requirements and demonstrate how a flexible system solution allows not only efficient test of the new design but also addresses the degree of rigor required to be demonstrated when testing a production volume ECU to ISO26262 functional safety standard.
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Design and Characterization of an E-booster Driven by an High Speed Brushless DC Motor

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Moving Magnet Technologies SA-Stephane Tavernier, Samuel Equoy
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1762
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Engine downsizing has become one of the main strategies to reduce C02 emission. Turbochargers are well-adapted to this purpose but one of their biggest drawbacks is the turbo-lag which reduces the driving comfort especially during acceleration. Electrically driven compressors also known as E-compressor or E-booster could be a well-adapted solution to boost the engine intake pressure in order to reduce the turbo-lag. Since centrifugal compressors operate at high rotational speeds, high speed electric machines are therefore required. To achieve a significant reduction of the turbo-lag, a very fast response time is needed leading to the development of electric machines able to typically spin from idle to 75kRPM in less than 300ms.With 20 years of expertise in the development of innovative brushless DC motors for automotive applications, MMT has recently investigated the design of such high power-high rotation speed motors. After first integrated an electric motor into a turbocharger described in [1], MMT has decided to optimize the complete system in collaboration with SwissAuto Wenko AG, a specialist in the design and characterization of advanced charging…
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Dual Antenna Diversity System for FM Reception

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

STMicroelectronics-Raed S. Shatara
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0165
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the performance of digital implementation of dual antenna phase diversity system utilizing the Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) and Maximal Ratio Combiner (MRC) and proposes a two -antenna CMA/MRC hybrid algorithm for mobile FM reception. Simulation proved that CMA has superior performance in frequency selective multipath (long-delay) with medium and strong signal conditions. On the other hand, the MRC optimizes the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) output in weak signal conditions. The signal conditions are constantly changing in mobile environment, therefore the appropriate algorithm should be chosen dynamically to optimize signal reception.
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Optimal Sensor Configuration and Fault-Tolerant Estimation of Vehicle States

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors Company-Shih-Ken Chen, Baktiarr Litkouhi
Univ. of Surrey-Saber Fallah
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0175
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses observability of the vehicle states using different sensor configurations as well as fault-tolerant estimation of these states. The optimality of the sensor configurations is assessed through different observability measures and by using a 3-DOF linear vehicle model that incorporates yaw, roll and lateral motions of the vehicle. The most optimal sensor configuration is adopted and an observer is designed to estimate the states of the vehicle handling dynamics. Robustness of the observer against sensor failure is investigated. A fault-tolerant adaptive estimation algorithm is developed to mitigate any possible faults arising from the sensor failures. Effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant estimation scheme is demonstrated through numerical analysis and CarSim simulation.
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New Methods of Debugging and Testing Improve the Software Quality of AUTOSAR ECUs

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Vector CANtech Inc.-Richard E. Lotoczky
Vector Informatik GmBH-Mark Schwager
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0427
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The development of ECU software has been the focus of improvement since its widespread inception in the late 1970's. Since that time, we have seen the transition from assembly language to higher level languages, like C, to higher levels of abstraction with the use of MATLAB® to build C language constructs. One of the areas that had not changed significantly is the methods used to evaluate, validate and verify performance.In many applications, software has been validated on the bench using the generated code in conjunction with the target ECU and some sort of I/O simulation technique. In other applications, such as AUTOSAR, software components may be developed and tested in a virtual environment on a PC and later transferred to the target ECU for functional testing in a simulated environment on the bench.In this paper, the concepts for two new tools are presented. The first concept describes an emulation platform that automatically configures the AUTOSAR Run Time Environment (RTE) and Basic Software (BSW) to test the performance of AUTOSAR software components using traditional techniques or…
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Capacitive Humidity Sensors Using Highly Durable Polyimide Membrane

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

DENSO Corporation-Naohisa Niimi, Takahiko Yoshida
NIPPON SOKEN, INC.-Toshiki Isogai
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1337
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Humidity sensors used in automatic windshield defogging controls contribute to the improvement of fuel consumption. The optimum control of air conditioning systems can be realized by adding humidity information to conventional systems which have used only temperature information.While resistive humidity sensors have been widely used, their sensing range and responsiveness are observed as issues. Resistive sensors cannot function at a humidity range of around 100% RH as well as at a low temperature range, and have a low response rate to sudden changes in humidity. It is considered that resistive humidity sensors will be replaced with capacitive ones which have a wide sensing range and high responsiveness. However, since capacitive sensors use macromolecule organic materials for their humidity sensing membranes, characteristic changes caused by two factors in a high temperature and high humidity environment are concerns: the deterioration of the membrane itself, and the decrease of the adhesive strength between the membrane and the underlying layers.This paper describes a newly developed capacitive humidity sensor with high durability by suppressing hydrolysis and swelling of membranes which…
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Application of Accelerated Processing Units in Safety-Critical Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Advanced Micro Devices-Dawid Trawczynski
Florida Gulf Coast Univ.-Janusz Zalewski
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0179
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The paper discusses application of Accelerated Processing Units (APU) in safety analysis and design of safety-critical systems. Specifically, a dependability simulation technique called software fault injection is discussed in the context of APU application to respective injection algorithms. We discuss parallel fault seeding techniques that can be used to expand and speed-up the fault space exploration. These techniques are presented in the context of a case-study of an Anti-Lock Braking System.
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Design of Seat Mounted ECG Sensor System for Vehicle Application

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

DENSO Corporation-Kazuhiro Sakai, Kenichi Yanai, Shuntaro Okada, Katsuyoshi Nishii
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1339
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The causes of deaths in traffic accidents are predominantly human factors such as careless or "heedlessness" driving; recently, accidents that are believed to be due to deteriorated physical conditions, such as heart attacks, have been reported. Non-contact electrocardiography (ECG) monitor for continuous ECG detection while driving is needed to reduce a number of fatal accident by human error like this. Recently there are a lot of papers to detect cardiac electricity using capacitance coupling between human body and electrode. This sensor system must be adopted appropriate high input impedance circuit and noise reduction technique as a function of source impedance value especially for a seat mounted sensor.We investigated the impedances of the intermediary materials such as a seat cover and clothing for installing vehicle use by dielectrics measurement system can measure extra-high impedance (100TΩ), and designed an effective circuit configuration for common noise resistance, considering the effect of the sitting posture according to their results. The sensor system employed the DRL (Driven Right Leg) circuit is composed of two sensor head mounted into the seat…
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