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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Efficient Integration for a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Yanan Zhao, Fangjun Jiang, Zhang Yan
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0665
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The integration of a HIL system involves many software and hardware elements. During the integration process, various errors may occur. In this paper, the Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology is applied to develop an integration process for a generic type of HIL system. The development follows the DCOV (Design, Characterize, Optimize and Verify) four-phase approach. The result is an efficient process proven to meet the customer's needs, reduce integration errors and deliver a high quality HIL system within less time.
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Evidence Theory Based Automotive Battery Health Monitoring

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors R&D-Kwang-Keun Shin, Mutasim Salman
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0251
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
As the number of electrical devices in modern vehicles increases, the battery becomes more critical component for the operation of vehicles. To ensure the startability of the vehicle, battery conditions such as state of charge and state of health should be properly monitored and maintained. To reduce walk-home incidents due to no-start situation, appropriate warning should be issued to the driver to advise necessary actions such as replacing or re-charging the battery. For the last couple of years, General Motors has studied and developed several battery health monitoring methods based on different battery health signatures. Yet, it is found that relying on a single method may lead to false alarm or misdetection due to lack of information or uncertainty. This paper develops the algorithm for more robust and reliable battery health monitoring and prognosis, by applying Evidence Theory to fuse different battery health signatures. The algorithm is evaluated by using battery cranking data from the set of batteries collected from field. The test results show reliable and robust performance.
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Signal Processing for Rough Road Detection

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors Corp.-Tameem Assaf, David Mathews, Sanjeev Naik
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0673
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Misfire diagnostics are required to detect missed combustion events which may cause an increase in emissions and a reduction in performance and fuel economy. If the misfire detection system is based on crankshaft speed measurement, driveline torque variations due to rough road can hinder the diagnosis of misfire. A common method of rough road detection uses the ABS (Anti-Lock Braking System) module to process wheel speed sensor data. This leads to multiple integration issues including complexities in interacting with multiple suppliers, inapplicability in certain markets and lower reliability of wheel speed sensors.This paper describes novel rough road detection concepts based on signal processing and statistical analysis without using wheel speed sensors. These include engine crankshaft and Transmission Output Speed (TOS) sensing information. Algorithms that combine adaptive signal processing and specific statistical analysis of this information are presented. Vehicle test results are shown to demonstrate the efficacy of these techniques to distinguish between rough road, smooth road, and misfire.
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Message Packing Algorithm for CAN-Based Legacy Control Systems Mixed with CAN and FlexRay

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hitachi Ltd.-Tasuku Ishigooka, Fumio Narisawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0685
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Hard real-time systems such as automotive control systems have to guarantee that strict deadlines are met for applications. Recent automotive control systems have been network systems that have combined event-triggered with time-triggered networks, i.e., Controller Area Network (CAN) and FlexRay. A CAN-FlexRay gateway has to execute real-time message transfers from CAN to FlexRay and from FlexRay to CAN to guarantee that communication deadlines are met. Most gateways in the automotive control systems select messages according to the priority of the messages and pack them into frames. However, when many events of same kinds occur within the short period, the gateway cannot guarantee that communication deadlines for time-triggered and first event-triggered messages will be met because many event-triggered messages prevent time-triggered messages from being packed into frame. This paper describes a novel real-time message packing algorithm that prioritizes transmissions of time-triggered messages and first event-triggered messages to guarantee that communication deadlines for them are met. The message packing algorithm statically establishes various clusters of both communication messages and FlexRay frames and preferentially packs a message into…
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Timing Implications of Sharing Resources in Multicore Real-Time Automotive Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Technische Univ. Braunschweig-Mircea Negrean, Simon Schliecker, Rolf Ernst
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0454
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The topic of timing has already been recognized as a major challenge when designing safety-critical automotive architectures. Consequently the availability of appropriate performance and timing analysis methods is key to building reliable automotive electric and electronics (E/E) and software architectures. Due to the potential performance increase, power reduction and cost-efficiency multicore solutions for automotive real-time environments receive growing attention. But the prediction of the timing behavior for multicore electronic control unit (ECU) systems becomes more complicated. Even in setups with static task-to-processor mapping, the execution of the tasks is usually not independent. The use of the same physical hardware, such as memories, coprocessors, or network components, makes inter-core interference unavoidable and may introduce hard-to-find timing problems including missed deadlines that can finally make the entire system fail. With this work we anticipate new issues on the timing prediction in the upcoming automotive multicore ECUs, we discuss difficulties and solutions in the evolution from distributed single-core systems to multicore systems and also provide a modeling and analysis approach of complex real-time multicore systems with shared resources.
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Development of Combined Control Unit for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hyundai-Kia R&D Center-Jeong Soo Eo, Youn Kwang Jung, Dae Ro Park, Chung Hi Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0484
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The main objective of the combined control unit is to develop a cost effective and optimal control system that manage the proper torque distribution and minimize the loss of communication delay caused by individual inter-controller cooperative control.The control systems of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) are more complicated than conventional vehicle. The major difference of HEV has Power Electronics (PE) system. The control systems of PE-part in the HEV are consisted with Hybrid Control Unit (HCU), Motor Control Unit (MCU) and Battery Management System (BMS) individually.In this study, the controllers of PE system are combined into one PCB (1Board-1Micom). Vehicle-testing and dynamometer-testing results confirm that the combined control unit achieves approximately 45% cost and 47% weight reduction compare to the non-combined (Individual controllers) same hybrid vehicle.
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Investigation of High Frequency AC Power Distribution Benefits for the Automobile Auxiliary Electrical System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Cranfield Univ., UK-Ciprian Antaloae, Nicholas Vaughan, James Marco
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1322
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to indicate the advantages and any drawbacks of high frequency alternating current (HFAC) power for vehicle auxiliary electrical systems. Generally, benefits of HFAC include efficient power distribution and transformation, space and weight saving and load galvanic isolation. In addition, HFAC bus topologies are distributed to the point of use, lending the system to easy fault detection. The paper is structured as follows: first, the main findings of the most relevant automotive HFAC studies are outlined. Next, an HFAC architecture is proposed which is compared to the existing 14V and proposed 42V centralised DC networks in terms of power distribution efficiency and wiring harness weight saving. For this analysis, the case study of a medium-sized passenger vehicle is considered, and a group of intermittent and continuous auxiliary loads with a cumulative power of 2.8kW. The calculations over a 1200s drive cycle show that the power distribution efficiency for a 50kHz, 100V AC power bus increases by 90 per cent and 80 per cent compared to 14V and 42V DC topologies, respectively, and the…
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An Investigation into Multi-Core Architectures to Improve a Processing Performance of the Unified Chassis Control Algorithms

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hyundai Mobis-Kyungil Seo, Taeyoung Chung
Seoul National Univ.-Hyundong Heo, Kyongsu Yi, Naehyuck Chang
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0662
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an investigation into multi-core processing architecture for implementation of a Unified Chassis Control (UCC) algorithm. The multi-core architecture is suggested to reduce the operating load and maximization of the reliability to improve of the UCC system performance. For the purpose of this study, the proposed multi-core architecture supports distributed control with analytical and physical redundancy capabilities. In this paper, the UCC algorithm embedded in electronic control unit (ECU) is comprised of three parts; a supervisor, a main controller, and fault detection/ isolation/ tolerance control (FDI/FTC). An ECU is configured by three processors, and a control area network (CAN) is also implemented for hardware-in-the-loop (HILS) evaluation. Two types of multi-core architectures such as distributed processing, and triple voting are implemented to investigate the performance and reliability. A vehicle simulator and brake HILS are used to evaluate the proposed multi-core architectures. From the test results, it is shown that all of the proposed multi-core systems have better performance and improved reliability compared with the single-core system.
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Detect the Imperceptible Drowsiness

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Chubu Univ.-Yutaka Hirata
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Tetsuro Shirakata, Koji Tanida
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0746
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Prediction of drowsiness based on an objective measure is demanded in machine and vehicle operations, in which human error may cause fatal accidents. Recently, we focused on the pupil which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, easily and non-invasively observable from the outside of the body.Prior to the large low frequency pupil-diameter fluctuation, which is known to associate with drowsiness, a Gradual Miosis was observed in most subjects. During this miosis period, the subjects were not yet aware of their drowsiness. We have developed a software system which automatically detects the Gradual Miosis in real time.
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Diagnostics Design Process for Developmental Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-John Lockwood, Yonghua Li
Univ. of Detroit Mercy-Richard Charles Hill
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0247
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
In this paper a diagnostic design process is proposed for developmental vehicles where mainstream design process is not well-suited. First a review of current practice in on-board vehicle fault diagnostics design is presented with particular focus on the application of this process to the development of the Ford Escape Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program and a demonstration Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) program. Based on the review and evaluation of these experiences, a new tool for diagnostics design is proposed that promises to make the design more traceable, to reduce the repetition of work, and to improve understandability and reuse.
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