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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Design Optimization of Motor/Generator Full-load Characteristics in Two-mode Hybrid Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

University of Michigan-Ann Arbor-Kukhyun Ahn, Panos Y. Papalambros
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1317
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
An important benefit in adopting multi-mode hybrid powertrains is the possibility of downsizing the electric motor/generator (M/G) units. This paper discusses design optimization of M/G full-load operation envelopes. A three-dimensional operation space analysis is introduced and the full-load speed-torque envelopes of M/G units appear as constraints in the powertrain operation space. The analysis shows how the change in the M/G characteristics affects the powertrain full-load performance and how the M/G units can be downsized by combining multiple modes. When the acceleration performance of a two-mode hybrid vehicle is estimated using this analysis method, the trade-off between enhancing performance and reducing M/G full-load capacities is formulated as an optimization problem. The results show significant improvement in dynamic performance at reduced M/G cost.
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Conceptual Development of Automotive Forward Lighting System Using White Light Emitting Diodes

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

BMW Manufacturing Co-Andreas Obieglo
Clemson University-Beshoy Morkos, Prabhu Shankar, Sudhakar Teegavarapu, Ashwin Michaelraj, Joshua D. Summers
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0593
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on redesigning the headlamp subsystem functional architecture. The design involves meeting three major functional requirements: Achieving the lumen requirements according to Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) 324 regulations, Meeting the illumination pattern, and Maintaining the Light Emitting Diode’s (LED) junction temperature at 90°C. White LEDs are considered in the design to satisfy the functional requirements due to their high lumen efficacy, compact size, and long life. These benefits, when compared to existing headlight systems benchmarked, present enough potential to warrant further conceptual virtual prototyping. The prototyping focused on solutions that allowed control of sizing and numbering of LEDs, illumination pattern limits, and temperature to achieve the multiple functions a dynamic headlight system. A primary challenge in this design is to maintain the LED’s junction temperature within a recommended operational range. A conceptual design is presented with metal foam meta-material which act as both a heat exchanger to maintain the LED’s junction temperature and a structural member. The metal foam design also exploits the environmental conditions of the vehicle operation to meet the…
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Design and Performance Analysis of 10 Mbit/s CAN

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

AutoNetworks Technologies, Ltd-Yukihiro Miyashita
Center for Embedded Computing Systems, Nagoya University-Ryo Kurachi, Hiroaki Takada, Shigeharu Teshima
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0126
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we propose a new automotive network protocol which can transmit data at a speed of 10 Mbit/s. The new automotive protocol “10 Mbit/s CAN” is based on two changes to CAN; a star topology, in which nodes are physically connected using a multi-port gateway, and a new collision resolution algorithm which guarantees delivery of a message within a finite period of time. According to our analysis using a simulator, the “10 Mbit/s CAN” protocol demonstrated several advantages over throughput performance of a conventional CAN, including a maximum possible data transmission speed, high scalability, and reduction of priority inversion. The implementation considerations of “10 Mbit/s CAN” are also reviewed briefly.
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Using Thin Film Sensors to Measure Dynamic Forces Transmitted at Bolted Joints of Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD-Yasuhiro Kanda, Takehiko Masaki, Masahiro Yamada
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0635
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
High sensitivity and capacity thin film pressure sensors using the piezoresistive effect of ytterbium (Yb) thin films have been developed on metal plates using semiconductor manufacturing technology. The pressure sensors can effectively operate in the temperature range of −30 °C to 120 °C due to the thermally stable polycrystalline phase of ytterbium thin films. The sensors clamped at bolted joints on body mounts show excellent dynamic response comparable to that of a load cell.
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Requirement Analysis and Development using MATLAB Models

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Electrical Systems Division, Lear Corporation-Jinming Yang, Jason Bauman, Al Beydoun
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1548
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Requirements development and analysis for automotive electronics products have been found to be tremendously challenging to both OEMs and suppliers. Besides ambiguity, incompleteness, conflicts and other pitfalls commonly seen in requirement specifications, in some cases, a requirements document for a new electronics product may even not exist and may need to be developed from scratch. Analysis reveals that generic model-based approaches and toolsets presently available lack support for requirements development while facilitating all other development activities across the entire product development cycle.In this work, we describe a model-based development methodology centering on requirements development, engineering, and management while supporting other development activities including requirements analysis and clarification, rapid prototyping, simulation, verification and validation, automatic code generation, and SIL/HIL testing. The methodology leverages the MATLAB® toolset features of visual conceptualization, rapid prototyping, simulation and ease of accessing model property data with m-scripts, not only to improve the traditional requirements development activities for understanding customer’s needs, abstraction and definition from concepts, requirements document elaboration, but also to make it possible to maintain a set of executable models…
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A Comparison of Dual-Core Approaches for Safety-Critical Automotive Applications

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Embedded Software Laboratory, RWTH Aachen University, Germany-Eva Beckschulze, Falk Salewski, Stefan Kowalewski
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0761
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Safety is a requirement concerning an increasing number of automotive applications. Recent safety standards set requirements for designing safety-critical systems. Among others, these specifications include a comprehensive detection and handling of hardware faults. Currently emerging dual-core microcontrollers provide a cost-effective opportunity to fulfill these requirements. In this paper we analyze a safety-critical application example and discuss two different approaches, an application-specific approach and a generic approach for implementing functional safety requirements on a dual-core microcontroller. An investigation of the associated concepts called function monitoring architectures and generic architectures reveals their differences and at the same time advantages and disadvantages. Besides effects on safety, effects on reliability, modifiability and costs are evaluated and presented graphically.
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A Heuristic Approach for Offboard-Diagnostics in Advanced Automotive Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Control Engineering-Tobias Carsten Müller
Volkswagen AG-Olaf Krieger, Andreas Breuer, Klaus Lange, Thomas Form
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1027
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
As the complexity of current automobiles increases, new and innovative diagnostic methods for car maintenance and diagnostic inspection are greatly needed. This paper introduces a new diagnostic approach, which learns from previous repair cases with the help of neural networks in order to assist future diagnostic inspections. Practical experiments have shown that this approach is able to provide promising results even with the data that is already available today.
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Using Model-Based Design to Accelerate FPGA Development for Automotive Applications

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

The MathWorks-Sudhir Sharma, Wang Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0519
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
A recent Gartner Dataquest study predicts that the total worldwide automotive semiconductor market will grow from $20.1 billion in 2007 to $25.9 billion by 2010. The study also predicts that revenue from automotive usage of FPGAs will triple to approximately $312 million during that same period[1].Many of these FPGAs will be deployed in safety applications such as back-up cameras, lane departure warning systems, blind-spot warning system, and adaptive cruise control. FPGAs will also be deployed in next-generation engine electronics, emissions control, navigation, and entertainment applications.Automotive systems engineers are adept at using Model-Based Design for implementing some of these embedded applications on DSPs and microcontrollers. Many of these engineers are new to FPGA design and waking up to a fragmented workflow that is making it harder to meet time-to-market and cost objectives.For example, engineers who are migrating their systems designs from DSPs to FPGAs are discovering that additional verification steps such as bit-true, cycle-accurate simulations are required to ensure that the FPGA functions the same as the system specification. This is a time-consuming and error-prone activity…
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Research on Reduction of Harmonic Distortion of Inverter for Small Gas Engine Cogeneration System with Backup Function

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Honda R&D Co.,Ltd.-Takayuki Enomoto, Shunichiro Sueyoshi, Koichi Tsuno, Takeshi Yamaji
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0523
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Research has been conducted to use an interconnection inverter for a stand-alone generator with an aim to provide a small gas engine cogeneration system with a backup function to serve as an emergency power generator in case of blackout. When a diode rectifier with a large capacitor (hereinafter referred to as a rectifier load) is connected to the interconnection inverter during backup operation, harmonic distortion of the output voltage becomes larger, and in some cases, resulting in miss operation of connected equipment.In order to address this issue, types of connected loads were estimated by focusing on the crest factor of the inverter output current. The crest factor is the value in which the maximum current value is divided by the actual current value. When deterioration is identified in the output voltage harmonic distortion caused by rectifier loads, processes were conducted for dynamically varying the output current feedback relative to the normal set value and for approximating the output voltage to a sine wave by the output voltage feedback. By these methods, the total harmonic distortion…
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Smart Touch® Sensing Places the Power of the Microprocessor at Your Fingertips

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Nartron Corporation-Erin Kirby
Sanyo Automotive U.S.A, Inc-Rachel Guerrero
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0521
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Smart Touch® sensing is a breakthrough in human interface technology allowing direct access to computer power, such as with the highly successful iPhone™ and other handheld devices. By combining the reliability and flexibility of completely solid state sensing along with anthrotronic considerations, capacitive sensing interface technology creates new automotive design opportunities.Consumers are increasingly turning to touch screen devices for their ease of use. Touch screens enable designers to dramatically improve the automotive interior for (1) user satisfaction (2) OEM cost benefits (3) important safety/ergonomic benefits and (4) styling design freedom to harmonize with interior themes. Panels will not only act on touch, but will have functions that respond to hand gestures and movements. For example, a center stack console can be enabled to illuminate when the user makes a movement near it, with the added benefit of conserving power. Interfacing to a vehicle by capacitive sensing creates entirely new opportunities in the evolution of automotive interior design. The styling design possibilities are nearly endless providing freedoms that are unachievable with conventional switches.This paper describes the…
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