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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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A Novel Method for Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound in a Passenger Car and Its Application to the Design of Interior Sound in a Luxury Passenger Car

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hyundai Motor Co.-Dong Chul Park, Seonghyeon Kim
Inha University-Seung Min Lee, Sang Kwon Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1758
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Recently the interior sound is actively generated by the active sound design (ASD) device in a passenger car. Therefore, the objective evaluation method for the sound quality of actively designed sounds is required. In previous research, the sound quality of interior sound has been presented with powerful and pleasant for the existing passenger car. This paper presents a novel approach method for the objective evaluation of powerfulness and pleasantness of actively designed interior sound. The powerfulness has been evaluated based on the degreed of modulation and a quantity of low frequency booming of the sound in the paper. On the other hand, the pleasantness is evaluated based on the slope ratio of harmonic orders per octave in frequency domain. These evaluation methods are successfully applied to the objective evaluation of luxury passenger car. The sound with powerful and pleasant character is designed based on these two evaluation parameters and employed to the interior sound of a new luxury passenger car.
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Hazard Warning Performance in Light of Vehicle Positioning Accuracy and Map-Less Approach Path Matching

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Company-Andreas Barthels, Christian Ress, Martin Wiecker, Manfred Müller
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0073
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle to Vehicle Communication use case performance heavily relies on market penetration rate. The more vehicles support a use case, the better the customer experience. Enabling these use cases with acceptable quality on vehicles without built-in navigation systems, elaborate map matching and highly accurate sensors is challenging. This paper introduces a simulation framework to assess system performance in dependency of vehicle positioning accuracy for matching approach path traces in Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages (DENMs) in absence of navigation systems supporting map matching. DENMs are used for distributing information about hazards on the road network. A vehicle without navigation system and street map can only match its position trajectory with the trajectory carried in the DENM. The framework supports simulating random and systematic positioning error influences, network effects, and different algorithms for approach path trace matching and DENM approach path trace generation. The tool allows assessing the observable system performance in terms of correct and incorrect matching of approach path traces resulting in true and false, positive and negative hazard warnings provided to the user. We…
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2-Drive Motor Control Unit for Electric Power Steering

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

DENSO Corporation-Mikihiro Hiramine, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Takashi Suzuki
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1485
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The electric power steering (EPS) is increasing its number since there are many advantages compared to hydraulic power steering. The EPS saves fuel and eliminates hydraulic fluid. Also, it is more suitable to the cooperation control with the other vehicle components. The EPS is now expanding to the heavier vehicle with the advance in the power electronics. In order to meet customer's needs, such as down-sizing, lower failure rate and lower price, we have developed the new motor control unit (MCU) for the EPS. The motor and the electric control unit (ECU) were integrated for the better installation. We adopted new technologies of redundant 2-drive design for more safe EPS. “2-drive Motor Control technology” which consists of dual winding, two torque sensors and two inverter drive units. In our developed MCU, even if there is a failure in one of the drive unit, the assistance of the EPS can be maintained with the other drive unit.
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Method to Optimize Key Parameters and Effectiveness Evaluation of the AEB System Based on Rear-End Collision Accidents

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

SHUFO-Yutong He
Tong Ji Univ-Mingming Zhao, Hongyan Wang, Xiao Xu
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0112
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Rear-end accident is one of the most important collision modes in China, which often leads to severe accident consequences due to the high collision velocity. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) system could perform emergency brake automatically in dangerous situation and mitigate the consequence. This study focused on the analysis of the rear-end accidents in China in order to discuss about the parameters of Time–to-Collision (TTC) and the comprehensive evaluation of typical AEB. A sample of 84 accidents was in-depth investigated and reconstructed, providing a comprehensive set of data describing the pre-crash matrix. Each accident in this sample is modeled numerically by the simulation tool PC-Crash. In parallel, a model representing the function of an AEB system has been established. This AEB system applies partial braking when the TTC ≤ TTC1 and full braking when the TTC ≤ TTC2. Lastly, the AEB system’s model is coupled to the kinematic of the vehicle in simulation for virtual trajectories preceding the collision point to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different combinations of TTC according to the collision velocity reduction…
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Use of Electric Driveline for a Cooperative Braking Strategy

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

NEVS-Mustafa Ali Arat, Hans-Martin Duringhof, Johan Hagnander, Eduardo L. Simoes
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1595
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a brake control strategy with a novel approach to the allocation of actuator effort in an electric vehicle. The proposed strategy relies on a combination of the conventional hydraulic braking system and the electric machine in order to improve braking performance. The higher response frequency of the electric machine is paired with the additional braking torque employed by the hydraulic brakes using an integrated control allocation strategy, which allows for a constant availability of a faster and more accurate modulation of both wheel torque and wheel speed. Therefore, the availability of an electric machine as a fast longitudinal actuator yields to an improved tracking of the desired wheel slip, especially when compared to the hydraulic actuators used in traditional braking applications. As a result, this strategy leads to a clear and considerable reduction of the braking distance, removes the need for a hydraulic modulator and thereby also removes the disturbing feedback on the brake pedal in hard braking maneuvers. The control algorithm is implemented and tested with numerical analysis using a plant…
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Measures to Prevent Unauthorized Access to the In-Vehicle E/E System, Due to the Security Vulnerability of a Remote Diagnostic Tester

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Softing Automotive Electronics GmbH-Peter Subke, Andreas Vach, Markus Steffelbauer
Softing North America Inc.-Muzafar Moshref
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1689
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Remote diagnostic systems support diagnostic communication by having the capability of sending diagnostic request services to a vehicle and receiving diagnostic response services from a vehicle. These diagnostic services are specified in diagnostic protocols, such as SAE J1979, SAE J1939 or ISO 14229 (UDS).For the purpose of diagnostic communication, the tester needs access to the electronic control units as communication partners. Physically, the diagnostic tester gets access to the entire vehicle´s E/E system, which consists of connectors, wiring, the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN), the electronic control units, sensors, and actuators.Any connection of external test equipment and the E/E system of a vehicle poses a security vulnerability. The combination can be used for malicious intrusion and manipulation. Any unauthorized access to the E/E system of a vehicle can severely harm the functional safety and finally cause damage to the vehicle or - even worse - to life and health of people.This paper describes the architecture of a system for remote diagnostics, its security vulnerability and measures to increase the security.
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Integration of Component Design Data for Automotive Turbocharger with Vehicle Fault Model Using JA6268 Methodology

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors-Steven Holland, Sachin Raviram
Honeywell Aerospace-Tim Felke
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1623
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop a mechanism to allow “Health Ready Components” to be integrated into larger systems to enable broader IVHM functionality (reference SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the design data provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle reference model with emphasis on how each aspect of the model is transmitted to minimize ambiguity. The intent is to enhance support for the analytics, diagnostics and prognostics for the embedded component. In addition, we describe functionality being delegated to other system components and that provided by the supplier via syndicated web services.As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 data submittal for a typical automotive turbocharger and other engine air system components to clarify the data modeling and integration processes. It will describe how data submittals are structured to support IVHM analytics, diagnostics and prognostics. We conclude with a discussion of how the design data aspects of these components would be certified as “SAE JA6268 Health Ready” and…
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The Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Analysis of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Michigan Technological University-Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0001
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed. The research laid a solid foundation for the future work on HiL design of HEV control with the consideration of battery aging and the component-in-the-loop study of the lithium ion battery running in real-time.
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Diagnostics of Individual Air Fuel Ratio Cylinder Imbalance

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Company-Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki, Michael Kluzner, Robert Jentz
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1684
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) imbalance between engine cylinders remains one of the most challenging problems in powertrain systems diagnostics. California Air Resources Board(CARB) has started imposing specific requirements on automotive companies since 2011 that required the integration of on-board diagnostics (OBD) monitor for the detection and reporting of this type of powertrain malfunction. In this paper, some methodologies of AFR cylinder imbalance monitoring are investigated and a novel approach is proposed that shows reliable detection capability compared to the other methods. The proposed method requires certain conditions during deceleration fuel shutoff events to intrusively reactivate the cylinders and determine the imbalance condition. The method was evaluated on a V6 3.7L engine in an experimental Lincoln MKZ vehicle. Vehicle results are shown and discussed.
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Solder Void Modeling and Its Influence on Thermal Characteristics of MOSFETs in Automotive Electronics Module

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Delphi Automotive Systems-Kesav Kumar Sridharan, Swaminathan Viswanathan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0011
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit boards. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Therefore it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each manufactured module is not practical. Hence different numerical models are studied for the solder, by using single and distributed void patterns matching the percentage void fraction. The numerical studies indicated that distributed void pattern captures the void behavior well compared to single void model. For the MOSFET…
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