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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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A Novel Method for Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound in a Passenger Car and Its Application to the Design of Interior Sound in a Luxury Passenger Car

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hyundai Motor Co.-Dong Chul Park, Seonghyeon Kim
Inha University-Seung Min Lee, Sang Kwon Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1758
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Recently the interior sound is actively generated by the active sound design (ASD) device in a passenger car. Therefore, the objective evaluation method for the sound quality of actively designed sounds is required. In previous research, the sound quality of interior sound has been presented with powerful and pleasant for the existing passenger car. This paper presents a novel approach method for the objective evaluation of powerfulness and pleasantness of actively designed interior sound. The powerfulness has been evaluated based on the degreed of modulation and a quantity of low frequency booming of the sound in the paper. On the other hand, the pleasantness is evaluated based on the slope ratio of harmonic orders per octave in frequency domain. These evaluation methods are successfully applied to the objective evaluation of luxury passenger car. The sound with powerful and pleasant character is designed based on these two evaluation parameters and employed to the interior sound of a new luxury passenger car.
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Adaptive Network Trained Controller for Automotive Steering Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

CARET, Aligarh Muslim University-Mohammad Saad Alam
Hyundai America Technical Center-Rakaan Chabaan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9626
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Electrical Power Assist Steering (EPAS) systems are currently eliminating the traditional hydraulic steering systems in vehicles. EPAS systems are nonlinear Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) systems with multiple objectives, including fast response to the driver torque command, good driver feel, and attenuation of load disturbance and sensor noises. Optimal control method is employed to design EPAS system controllers for improved performance and robustness. But these controllers have showed acceptable performance for certain operating conditions and undesired steering feel for high steering gain. In this work, the neural networks are used which replace the optimal controllers of EPAS systems. A Euclidean adaptive resonance theory (EART) networks is trained according to the data collected from an H∞ optimal controller. The collected data represent the controller input and output signals. The said data are normalized and clustered into categories in the EART modules. The modules are interconnected by a map field. Once the training is accomplished, the EART controller replaces the optimal controller. The proposed controller provides improved robustness and comparatively high steering feel of EPAS system by…
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3D Auditory Displays for Parking Assistance Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Luleå University of Technology-André Lundkvist, Roger Johnsson, Arne Nykänen, Jakob Stridfelt
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9627
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available. Both normal parking and parallel parking was conducted. Time taken for parking and the number of obstacles/curb hits were recorded. Participants answered a NASA TLX questionnaire after evaluating each PAS for…
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-Design and Control of Switching Synchronous Motor Dedicated to Electric Cars - Motorization

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Sfax University-Souhir Tounsi
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9625
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
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Hazard Warning Performance in Light of Vehicle Positioning Accuracy and Map-Less Approach Path Matching

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Company-Andreas Barthels, Christian Ress, Martin Wiecker, Manfred Müller
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0073
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle to Vehicle Communication use case performance heavily relies on market penetration rate. The more vehicles support a use case, the better the customer experience. Enabling these use cases with acceptable quality on vehicles without built-in navigation systems, elaborate map matching and highly accurate sensors is challenging. This paper introduces a simulation framework to assess system performance in dependency of vehicle positioning accuracy for matching approach path traces in Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages (DENMs) in absence of navigation systems supporting map matching. DENMs are used for distributing information about hazards on the road network. A vehicle without navigation system and street map can only match its position trajectory with the trajectory carried in the DENM. The framework supports simulating random and systematic positioning error influences, network effects, and different algorithms for approach path trace matching and DENM approach path trace generation. The tool allows assessing the observable system performance in terms of correct and incorrect matching of approach path traces resulting in true and false, positive and negative hazard warnings provided to the user. We…
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2-Drive Motor Control Unit for Electric Power Steering

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

DENSO Corporation-Mikihiro Hiramine, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Takashi Suzuki
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1485
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The electric power steering (EPS) is increasing its number since there are many advantages compared to hydraulic power steering. The EPS saves fuel and eliminates hydraulic fluid. Also, it is more suitable to the cooperation control with the other vehicle components. The EPS is now expanding to the heavier vehicle with the advance in the power electronics. In order to meet customer's needs, such as down-sizing, lower failure rate and lower price, we have developed the new motor control unit (MCU) for the EPS. The motor and the electric control unit (ECU) were integrated for the better installation. We adopted new technologies of redundant 2-drive design for more safe EPS. “2-drive Motor Control technology” which consists of dual winding, two torque sensors and two inverter drive units. In our developed MCU, even if there is a failure in one of the drive unit, the assistance of the EPS can be maintained with the other drive unit.
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Method to Optimize Key Parameters and Effectiveness Evaluation of the AEB System Based on Rear-End Collision Accidents

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

SHUFO-Yutong He
Tong Ji Univ-Mingming Zhao, Hongyan Wang, Xiao Xu
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0112
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Rear-end accident is one of the most important collision modes in China, which often leads to severe accident consequences due to the high collision velocity. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) system could perform emergency brake automatically in dangerous situation and mitigate the consequence. This study focused on the analysis of the rear-end accidents in China in order to discuss about the parameters of Time–to-Collision (TTC) and the comprehensive evaluation of typical AEB. A sample of 84 accidents was in-depth investigated and reconstructed, providing a comprehensive set of data describing the pre-crash matrix. Each accident in this sample is modeled numerically by the simulation tool PC-Crash. In parallel, a model representing the function of an AEB system has been established. This AEB system applies partial braking when the TTC ≤ TTC1 and full braking when the TTC ≤ TTC2. Lastly, the AEB system’s model is coupled to the kinematic of the vehicle in simulation for virtual trajectories preceding the collision point to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different combinations of TTC according to the collision velocity reduction…
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Use of Electric Driveline for a Cooperative Braking Strategy

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

NEVS-Mustafa Ali Arat, Hans-Martin Duringhof, Johan Hagnander, Eduardo L. Simoes
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1595
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a brake control strategy with a novel approach to the allocation of actuator effort in an electric vehicle. The proposed strategy relies on a combination of the conventional hydraulic braking system and the electric machine in order to improve braking performance. The higher response frequency of the electric machine is paired with the additional braking torque employed by the hydraulic brakes using an integrated control allocation strategy, which allows for a constant availability of a faster and more accurate modulation of both wheel torque and wheel speed. Therefore, the availability of an electric machine as a fast longitudinal actuator yields to an improved tracking of the desired wheel slip, especially when compared to the hydraulic actuators used in traditional braking applications. As a result, this strategy leads to a clear and considerable reduction of the braking distance, removes the need for a hydraulic modulator and thereby also removes the disturbing feedback on the brake pedal in hard braking maneuvers. The control algorithm is implemented and tested with numerical analysis using a plant…
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Systems Engineering Approach for Voice Recognition in the Car

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Company-Joshua Wheeler, Brigitte Richardson, Scott Amman, An Ji, John Huber, Ranjani Rangarajan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1599
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a systems engineering approach is explored to evaluate the effect of design parameters that contribute to the performance of the embedded Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) engine in a vehicle. This includes vehicle designs that influence the presence of environmental and HVAC noise, microphone placement strategy, seat position, and cabin material and geometry. Interactions can be analyzed between these factors and dominant influencers identified. Relationships can then be established between ASR engine performance and attribute performance metrics that quantify the link between the two. This helps aid proper target setting and hardware selection to meet the customer satisfaction goals for both teams.
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A Tailgate(Trunk) Control System Based on Acoustic Patterns

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hyundai Motor Company-Hui Sung Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1634
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
When customers use a tailgate (or trunk), some systems such as power tailgate and smart tailgate have been introduced and implemented for improving convenience. However, they still have some problems in some use cases. Some people have to search for the outside button to open the tailgate, or they should take out the key and push a button. In some cases, they should move their leg or wait a few seconds which makes some people feel that it is a long time. In addition, they have to push the small button which is located on the inner trim in order to close the tailgate. This paper proposes a new tailgate control technology and systems based on acoustic patterns in order to solve some inconvenience. An acoustic user interaction (AUI) is a technology which responds to human’s rubbing and tapping on a specific part analyzing the acoustic patterns. The AUI has been recently spotlighted in the automotive industry as well as home appliances, mobile devices, musical instruments, etc. The AUI is a technology that can extend…
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