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Design and Performance Analysis of a Novel Regenerative Braking System for Electrified Passenger Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

State Key Lab of ASE, Tsinghua Univ.-Ye Yuan, Junzhi Zhang, Chen Lv, Yutong Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0438
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
A novel type of regenerative braking system for electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. Four pressure-difference-limit valves, two relief valves and two brake pedal simulators, are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic modulator. The cooperation of relief valves and hydraulic pumps provides a stabilized high-pressure source. Pressure-difference-limit valves ensure that the pressure in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of anti-lock braking system and electronic stability program are integrated in this regenerative braking system. The models of regenerative braking controller and vehicle dynamics are built in MATLAB/Simulink. Hydraulic brake model is built in AMESim through a parameterized and modularized method. Meanwhile, the control strategy of hydraulic brake modulation and brake force distribution are designed. Simulations are conducted via co-simulation interface between MATLAB and AMESim under scenarios of typical braking and ECE driving cycle. Simulation results show that regenerative and hydraulic braking forces are coordinated well during typical braking process, verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the models built and strategies proposed. Under an…
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A Study on the Impact Resistance of Plastic Underbody Parts

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

DuPont Engineering Polymers-Yong Sun (Steven) Jin
Hyundai Motor Company-Jee Young Youn, Seok Hwan Kim
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0515
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Impact resistance of plastic underbody parts was studied using simulated injection-molded specimen which can be tested according to different types of material used, injection molding variants like position and number of injection molding gates, and features of ribs. Material applied was glass fiber reinforced polyamide which can be used in underbody parts. Test was performed using several combinations of injection molding gates and rib types. From the test result, optimal design guide for plastic underbody parts was determined. Also, new high impact resistant plastic material made of glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 (PA66) and polyamide 6 (PA6) alloy was developed and the material properties useful for CAE were determined. As a case study, oil pan and muffler housing were designed following the optimal design guide and CAE. And the reliability of the sample muffler housing designed was verified.
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Research on Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Viscoelastic Response of Polyvinyl Butaral Film

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Tsinghua University-Xiaoqing Xu, Bohan Liu, Yan Wang, Yibing Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0519
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The mechanical behavior of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film plays an important role in windshield crashworthiness and pedestrian protection and should be depth study. In this article, the uniaxial tension tests of PVB film at various strain rates (0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, 1 s-1) and temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 10°C, 23°C, 40°C, 55°C, 70°C) are conducted to investigate its mechanical behavior. Then, temperature and strain rate dependent viscoelastic characteristics of PVB are systematically studied. The results show that PVB is a kind of temperature and strain rate sensitive thermal viscoelastic material. Temperature increase and strain rate decrease have the same influence on mechanical properties of PVB. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of PVB change non-linearly with temperature and strain rate. Finally, two thermal viscoelastic constitutive model (ZWT model and DSGZ model) are suggested to describe the tension behavior of PVB film at various strain rates and temperatures. Tension response of PVB at 0°C-70°C is simulated based on ZWT model, while tension response of PVB at -10°C is described using DSGZ model. The fitting results show good…
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Crushing Analysis and Lightweight Design of Tapered Tailor Welded Hybrid Material Tubes under Oblique Impact

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Dalian University of Technology-Chang Qi, Yong Sun, Shu Yang, Yu Du
SAIC Motor Technique Center-Da-Zhi Wang, Guang-Jun Cao
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0407
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The increasing demand for lightweight design of the whole vehicle has raised critical weight reduction targets for crash components such as front rails without deteriorating their crash performances. To this end the last few years have witnessed a huge growth in vehicle body structures featuring hybrid materials including steel and aluminum alloys. In this work, a type of tapered tailor-welded tube (TTWT) made of steel and aluminum alloy hybrid materials was proposed to maximize the specific energy absorption (SEA) and to minimize the peak crushing force (PCF) in an oblique crash scenario. The hybrid tube was found to be more robust than the single material tubes under oblique impacts using validated finite element (FE) models. Compared with the aluminum alloy tube and the steel tube, the hybrid tube can increase the SEA by 46.3% and 86.7%, respectively, under an impact angle of 30°. Parameter analyses were performed to reveal the influence of four geometrical variables on the crashworthiness of the TTWTs. In addition, the radial basis function (RBF) metamodels were built for the SEA and…
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Auto Seating Lightweighting Using Solstice® Liquid Blowing Agent (HFO 1233zd(E))

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Honeywell Inc.-Ronald S. Grossman
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0521
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The lightweighting of auto components is a crucial strategy for OEMs to achieve increasingly challenging CAFÉ requirements. Research from MIT has found that every 10% reduction in passenger vehicle weight reduces fuel consumption by about 7%. Since fuel economy requirements have already increased by 18% from MY 2012 to 2017, the weight savings strategies that are easiest to implement have largely been exhausted. Seating is the largest interior component by weight, but the foam is often overlooked from lightweighting consideration due to the perception that higher weight, higher density seating is an important aspect of the vehicle’s comfort. It has become almost a truism that the physical properties associated with seating comfort -- load bearing, resilience, durability - are directly related to foam density. A new auxiliary blowing agent known chemically as HFO 1233zd(E) is commercially available as Solstice® LBA. Using 2 -4 parts per hundred polyol has been found to lower weight in molded seating foam by10 to 20%, while maintaining properties related to comfort and durability. This hydrofluoro olefin (HFO) is liquid near…
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Custom Design Multi-Axial Engine Mount Load-Cell Development for Road Load Identification and Fatigue Life Estimation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Bogazici University-Kaveh Shahidi, Nuri Ersoy
Design Verification & Test Engineer-Rıfat Yanarocak
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0413
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines are attached on the vehicle body using engine mounts composed of two cast iron brackets and a rubber isolator connecting them. Engine mount road load identification during vehicle durability tests on proving ground is a critical task for engine mount development. Using standard multi-axial load-cell is not possible unless major design revisions on the vehicle body or engine block are done. Using wheel force transducers and vehicle dynamic simulation tools need extensive model tuning work to get accurate load information. Hence, a custom multi-axial load-cell design is preferred for the engine mount load identification of a BCar I4 engine. The developed load-cell engine mount bracket can be installed without doing any design changes on the vehicle. Design, durability analysis, instrumentation, calibration and vehicle installation of custom designed six degree of freedom multi-axial load cell have been performed. Strain and acceleration measurements have been conducted on vehicle durability test track. Data have been processed to obtain forces and moments in six degree of freedom on the engine mounts. The loading information was used…
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Computational Efficiency Improvements in Topography Optimization Using Reanalysis

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland University-Syed F. Haider, Zissimos Mourelatos
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1395
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
To improve fuel economy, there is a trend in automotive industry to use light weight, high strength materials. Automotive body structures are composed of several panels which must be downsized to reduce weight. Because this affects NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance, engineers are challenged to recover the lost panel stiffness from down-gaging in order to improve the structure borne noise transmitted through the lightweight panels in the frequency range of 100-300 Hz where most of the booming and low medium frequency noise occurs. The loss in performance can be recovered by optimized panel geometry using beading or damping treatment. Topography optimization is a special class of shape optimization for changing sheet metal shapes by introducing beads. A large number of design variables can be handled and the process is easy to setup in commercial codes. However, optimization methods are computationally intensive because of repeated full-order analyses. In this paper, we propose using a Modified Combined Approximations (MCA) reanalysis method integrated with topography optimization to improve the computational efficiency. Using a tire tub example, we…
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Analysis of Influence of Snow Melting Agents and Soil Components on Corrosion of Decorative Chrome Plating

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Toyota Motor Corporation-Yuko Kajiyama, Toshikazu Obata, Tsuyoshi Sugimoto, Masahiro Nakamura, Motohide Mori
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0539
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The dissolution and exfoliation of chromium plating specific to Russia was studied. Investigation and analysis of organic compounds in Russian soil revealed contents of highly concentrated fulvic acid. Additionally, it was found that fulvic acid, together with CaCl2 (a deicing agent), causes chromium plating corrosion. The fulvic acid generates a compound that prevents reformation of a passivation film and deteriorates the sacrificial corrosion effectiveness of nickel.
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The Impact of Interior Sensory Quality to North American Customers

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Toyota Technical Center USA, Inc.-Lauren Abro
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0523
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
North American customer perception of Quality has changed over time and has shifted from Quality, Dependability, and Reliability (QDR) to Interior Sensory Quality (ISQ). ISQ is defined as the harmony of characteristics that combine to make an emotional connection to the vehicles’ interior. Vehicles need to correctly appeal to customers emotional side through providing class-leading ISQ. Hypotheses for specific interior areas were developed in order to identify key ISQ strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. These hypotheses were then tested at customer clinics held across the country. The key goals were to understand customer judgment of ISQ execution, understand customer ISQ priority, and understand customer preference of detailed component areas.
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Development of the All-Surface Plated Smart Handle Through In-Vapor Deposition Technology

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Aisin Seiki Co., Litd-Kazuki Mizutani
Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Takashi Hara, Masaki Kato
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0543
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
There are such outside door handles called smart handles which have a transmitting antenna, a lock/unlock sensor, and a sensor detection circuit, with which operation of door lock is possible just by "touching" the electrostatic-capacitance type sensor of the handles.As the design of the outside handles, body color painting and Cr plating are adopted. However, if plating is applied over the entire surface of a smart handle, electromagnetic waves transmitted from the antenna will be blocked since plating material is electrically conductive. In addition to this, touching a part other than the sensor may change the electrostatic-capacitance of the sensor, which results in unwanted functioning of the lock/unlock sensor. Because of this, only part of the handle, which does not hinder the transmission of electromagnetic waves and does not cause unwanted functioning, is covered by plating, that is called, "Partially plated specifications" (Figure 1).Figure 1Mechanism of unwanted functioningHowever, there is a strong demand for plating of the entire surface in Asia and North America, and we are receiving such requests from our customers.
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