Terms:
SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing
AND
9
AND
1
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

On Practical Implementation of the Ramberg-Osgood Model for FE Simulation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Eaton Corporation-Geethanjali Gadamchetty, Abhijeet Pandey, Majnoo Gawture
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9086
Published 2016-01-05 by SAE International in United States
The three parameter Ramberg-Osgood (RO) method finds popular usage for extracting complete stress-strain curve from limited data which is usually available. The currently popular practice of assuming the plasticity to set in only at the Yield point provides computational advantage by separating the complete nonlinear curve, obtained from RO method, into elastic and plastic regions. It is shown, with an example problem, that serious errors are committed by using this method if one compares the obtained results with results of complete stress-strain curve.In the present work we propose a simple Taylor series based approach based on RO method to overcome the above deficiency. This method is found to be computationally efficient. The proposed method is applicable for stress-strain curves of materials for which RO method provides a good approximation.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Robust Design of Spiral Groove Journal Bearing

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Eaton-Subrata Sarkar
Eaton Aerospace-Amit Kalmegh
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9087
Published 2016-01-05 by SAE International in United States
Journal bearings are machine elements designed to produce smooth (low friction) motion between solid surfaces in relative motion and to generate a load support for mechanical components. In a Journal bearing, the entire load is carried by a thin film of fluid present between the rotating and the non-rotating elements. The thickness of the film is very sensitive to ambient temperature, radial clearance and misalignment. Though these parameters are difficult to control, it is important to consider these as noises while designing the Journal bearing. When noises in the design space are very strong, the conventional DOE and RSM methods suppress the effect of control factors and render them irrelevant in the design process. This leads to overdesigning the product, which in turn adds more cost.The main objective of this work is to design a bearing, which is insensitive to noises at each stage of the product life cycle. Parameter design and tolerance design for journal bearing have been carried out using orthogonal array based Taguchi methodology. Optimal levels of the control factors have been…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Damage Initiation and Fatigue Behavior of Carbon-Fiber Composite Disk Springs

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Seyedmohammad Shams, Peng Yang
Univ of Wisconsin Milwaukee-Rani Elhajjar
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9084
Published 2016-01-01 by SAE International in United States
The disk spring offers the potential of significant weight savings when designed with continuous fiber reinforced composite materials. The internal stresses in a disk spring are ideally suited for composite material application due to their superior resistance to in-plane and bending stresses. In this study, a composite laminate disk spring is designed, analyzed and fabricated to take advantage of the low specific strength and weight and high damage tolerance of composite laminates. The design of the disk composite spring considers effects of the laminate stacking sequence and the geometric variables on the disk spring's mechanical performance. A continuum damage finite element analysis approach is used to understand the damage initiation and evolution as a function of applied load. Experimental analysis and a progressive damage analysis based on virtual crack closure technique are performed to evaluate the damage tolerance of the disk spring under fatigue loadings. Results show how a methodology can be used to study the crack propagation in carbon fiber disk springs.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Brake Squeal and Wheel Dust vs. Disc Wear: No-Copper, Low-Copper and High-Copper NAOs

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Compact International Co., Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob
SKR Consulting LLC-Seong Rhee
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2660
Published 2015-09-27 by SAE International in United States
In a previous investigation, brake squeal was found to be related to disc wear, but not to pad wear or in-stop average coefficient of friction as tested according to the SAE J2522 performance procedure, using Low-Copper NAOs. To further validate the disc wear - squeal correlation, a variety of formulations of No-Copper, Low-Copper and High-Copper NAO disc pads were made and tested to investigate friction, pad wear, disc wear, brake squeal and wheel dust formation. It is found that disc weight loss measured at the end of the burnish cycle of the SAE J2522 (AK Master) is closely related to dynamometer/vehicle brake squeal and vehicle wheel dust formation, and that there is a critical disc wear rate of approximately 1.0 grams for the current brake system, below which brake squeal and wheel dust are minimal. It is also found that there is no correlation between brake squeal and in-stop average friction coefficient, in-stop maximum friction coefficient or in-stop friction coefficient variations during the burnish cycle of SAE J2522 (AK Master).
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Promaxon® D in NAO Non Steel Disc Pad Formulations: the Importance in the Third Body Layer and its Effect on Brake Noise

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Lapinus Fibres-Diego Adolfo Santamaria Razo, Fernao Persoon
Promat NV-Johan Decrock, Ann Opsommer, Maarten Fabré
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2678
Published 2015-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Friction performance is the result of the interaction between rotor and friction material surfaces. Kinetic energy has to be transformed into heat, plastic deformations, chemical reactions and wear debris. The later generates the formation of the so-called third body layer and its initiation, growth and degradation will generate the actual friction coefficient and vibrations behavior.Some raw materials seem to promote third body layer formation more than others. The composition of plateaus usually contains iron oxide, copper, carbon, silicon and calcium. Since copper free materials are under development, the importance of understanding the third body layer formation has become bigger.Promaxon® D is widely used in NAO non steel formulations. It is a calcium silicate with a special morphology that influences friction material at two levels: the macro -bulk- scale and the micro -surface- scale.Bulk effect is related to the volume and porosity degree of the friction material. This affects the elastic modulus and vibration adsorption.The micrometric effect is related to the third body layer. When Promaxon® D is combined properly with an anchoring material (i.e. a…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Optimization of Brake Friction Materials Using Mathematical Methods and Testing

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Southern Illinois University-Amir Reza Daei, Nima Davoudzadeh, Peter Filip
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2661
Published 2015-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Brake linings have complex microstructure and consist of different components. Fast growing automotive industry requires new brake lining materials to be developed at considerably shorter time periods. The purpose of this research was to generate the knowledge for optimizing of brake friction materials formula with mathematical methods which can result in minimizing the number of experiments/test, saving development time and costs with optimal friction performance of brakes. A combination of processing methods, raw materials and testing supported with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Taguchi design of experiment (DOE) allowed achieving excellent results in a very short time period. Friction performance and wear data from a series of Friction Assessment and Screening Test (FAST) were used to train an artificial neural network, which was used to optimize the formulations. The averaged COF, COF variation and wear were used as the output parameters. Weight percentage of raw materials denoted as an input parameter and these data were used to train ANN. A two layer feedforward ANN with back propagation was used in this study. Back propagation…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Methods for Sizing Brake Pads for High Performance Brakes

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

General Motors Co.-David B. Antanaitis
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2679
Published 2015-09-27 by SAE International in United States
An aspect of high performance brake design that has remained strikingly empirical is that of determining the correct sizing of the brake pad - in terms of both area and volume - to match well with a high performance vehicle application. Too small of a pad risks issues with fade and wear life on the track, and too large has significant penalties in cost, mass, and packaging space of the caliper, along with difficulties in maintaining adequate caliper stiffness and its impact on pedal feel and response time.As most who have spent time around high performance brakes can attest to, there methods for determining minimum brake pad area, usually related in some form or another to the peak power the brake must absorb (functions of vehicle mass and top speed are common). However, the basis for these metrics are often lost (or closely guarded), and provide very little guidance for the effects of the final design (pad area) deviating from the recommended value.This paper proposes methods, justified with dynamometer and vehicle test data, to determine…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Global Improvement in Drilling and Countersinking of Multi-Material Stacks with Vibration Assisted Drilling

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

KENNAMETAL-Emmanuel Puviland
MITIS SAS-Cosme de Castelbajac, Sylvain Laporte, Julian Lonfier
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2501
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Over the last few years, many aircraft production lines have seen their production rate increase. In some cases, to avoid bottlenecks in the assembly lines, the productivity of processes needs to be improved while keeping existing machine-tools.In this context, the case of drilling machine-tools tends to require particular attention, especially when multi-material parts are drilled. In such instances, the Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) process can be a way to improve productivity and reliability while keeping quality standards.This article presents a case of a drilling/countersinking process for stainless steel and titanium stack parts. Firstly, the article assesses the feasibility and benefits of using Vibration Assisted Drilling and Countersinking with the current cutting-tools. Secondly, it studies the consequences of introducing a new tool holder in the process, which combines the V.A.D. function, a new declutching function and the ability to control countersink depth. Thirdly, a process study is undertaken on these last developments in order to design more efficient cutting tool geometries. New drilling and countersinking combined tools are developed. Their performances when used with the V.A.D.…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Cracking Stopping in the Bondline of Adhesively Bonded Composite Adherents by Means of a Mechanical Fastener: Numerical and Experimental Investigation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Fraunhofer IFAM-Samuel Baha II
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2611
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The use of composite materials in aircraft manufactures increases more and more with the need of light weight and efficient airplanes. Combining composite materials with an appropriate joining method is one of the primordial ways of exploiting its light weight potential. Since the widely-established mechanical fastening, which originally, was developed for metallic materials, is not a suitable joining method for composite materials because of its low bearing strength, the adhesively bonding technology might be an appropriate alternative. However, adhesively bonding in the aircraft manufacturing, especially for joining of primary structures is liable to certification requirements, such as testing of every bond up to limit load before the operation begins or non-destructive testing of every bond before the operation begins as proof of the joint characteristics, which cannot be fulfilled with the current state of the art. Combining adhesively bonding with mechanical fastening as a so-called “bonded/bolted hybrid joint” is one of the possible solutions to this problem. The mechanical fastener also called Disbond Stopping Feature (DSF) shall guarantee the structural integrity of the aircraft so…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Structural Quality Inspection Based on a RGB-D Sensor: Supporting Manual-to-Automated Assembly Operations

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Nottingham-Perla Maiolino, Richard A. J. Woolley, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2499
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The assembly and manufacture of aerospace structures, in particular legacy products, relies in many cases on the skill, or rather the craftsmanship, of a human operator. Compounded by low volume rates, the implementation of a fully automated production facility may not be cost effective. A more efficient solution may be a mixture of both manual and automated operations but herein lies an issue of human error when stepping through the build from a manual operation to an automated one. Hence the requirement for an advanced automated assembly system to contain functionality for inline structural quality checking. Machine vision, used most extensively in manufacturing, is an obvious choice, but existing solutions tend to be application specific with a closed software development architecture.Here we address these issues, presenting a robust solution for structural quality inspection using a low cost RGB-D sensor (Asus Xtion Pro Live) and open source libraries for point cloud analysis and processing. The system checks the quality of manually assembled sub-components before automated robot controlled operations are undertaken.
Annotation ability available