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Methods to Find Best Designs Among Infeasible Design Data Sets for Highly Constrained Design Optimization Problems

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Esteco North America Inc.-Adarsh Viji Elango, Zhendan Xue, Apurva Gokhale
Ford Motor Company-Saket Kansara
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0299
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the use of engineering design optimization techniques has grown multifold and formal optimization has become very popular among design engineers. However, the real world problems are turning out to be involved and more challenging. It is not uncommon to encounter problems with a large number of design variables, objectives and constraints. The engineers’ expectation, that an optimization algorithm should be able to handle multi-objective, multi-constrained data is leading them to apply optimization techniques to truly large-scale problems with extremely large number of constraints and objectives. Even as newer and better optimization algorithms are being developed to tackle such problems, more often than not, the optimization algorithms are unable to find a single feasible design that satisfies all constraints. It is common to see designers spending large amounts of computational resources in evaluating infeasible designs mainly because either the algorithms take time to get to the feasible regions of the design space, or no feasible designs are obtained after all the allowed optimization iterations.Even with surrogate based or meta-model based optimization, which enables…
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Design and Performance Analysis of a Novel Regenerative Braking System for Electrified Passenger Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

State Key Lab of ASE, Tsinghua Univ.-Ye Yuan, Junzhi Zhang, Chen Lv, Yutong Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0438
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
A novel type of regenerative braking system for electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. Four pressure-difference-limit valves, two relief valves and two brake pedal simulators, are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic modulator. The cooperation of relief valves and hydraulic pumps provides a stabilized high-pressure source. Pressure-difference-limit valves ensure that the pressure in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of anti-lock braking system and electronic stability program are integrated in this regenerative braking system. The models of regenerative braking controller and vehicle dynamics are built in MATLAB/Simulink. Hydraulic brake model is built in AMESim through a parameterized and modularized method. Meanwhile, the control strategy of hydraulic brake modulation and brake force distribution are designed. Simulations are conducted via co-simulation interface between MATLAB and AMESim under scenarios of typical braking and ECE driving cycle. Simulation results show that regenerative and hydraulic braking forces are coordinated well during typical braking process, verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the models built and strategies proposed. Under an…
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Experimental Determination of Effectiveness of Hydrophilic Coating for Evaporators

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

CalsonicKansei North America Inc.-Gursaran D. Mathur
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0191
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Water drainage characteristics of an evaporator changes with the age of the vehicle. This is due to the fact that with time, a part of the hydrophilic coating washes off with the moisture that condenses over the evaporator core from the air-stream. Hence, the effectiveness of the evaporator for water drainage deteriorates with the age of the vehicle. At this condition more water is retained in the evaporator as the contact angle increases. Author has conducted experiments with evaporators from multiple vehicles from different OEMs. These evaporators were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the hydrophilic coating as a function of time or vehicle age.This is the first paper in the open literature that deals with the vehicle mileage or vehicle age with the evaporator plate contact angle and surface coating of an evaporator.
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A Novel Cooling System Control Strategy for Internal Combustion Engines

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Universita della Calabria-Teresa Castiglione, Francesco Pizzonia, Sergio Bova
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0226
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
An innovative control strategy, which is based on the Robust Model Predictive Control (MPC) methodology, was developed with the purpose of optimizing the engine thermal management; the proposed control strategy adjusts the coolant flow rate by means of an electric pump, in order to bring the cooling system to operate around the onset of nucleate boiling. In the present paper, the advantages of the proposed cooling approach are evaluated along the NEDC homologation cycle, which was both simulated and replicated by means of laboratory tests; the latter include coolant, lubricant and wall temperature measurements. Special attention was reserved to the warm-up period. The case considered herein is that of a Spark Ignition engine, about 1.2 dm3 displacement, and a comparison with standard crankshaft driven pump is included. The proposed strategy makes use of a dynamic model of the cooling system of an ICE that is able to predict the heat transfer both under single-phase forced convection and in the presence of nucleate or saturated boiling. The model, which was widely validated by experimental tests, also…
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Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Vehicle Weight Reduction

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Esteco North America Inc.-Zhendan Xue, Adarsh Elango
Ford Research and Innovation Center-Jian Fang
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0301
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is often required in aircraft design to address the multidisciplinary feasibility issues due to the disciplines, for example, aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures, are heavily coupled. However, in automobile designs, can we apply different type of MDO decomposition originated from aircraft design, to some MDO problem, for example, a vehicle weight reduction example? Also, to effectively and efficiently accommodate design changes, multi-party collaboration between discipline specialists, and fast decision making, a web-based MDO platform with knowledge-based repository for resource sharing, capability of version control, and enhancing data security, is very much needed. Two types of MDO decomposition: All-at-Once (AAO) and Collaborative Optimization (CO) are formulated for the weight reduction example. A typical six-step MDO process, from building single discipline work flow to comparing optimization results, is illustrated step-by-step.
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A Linkage Based Solution Approach for Determining 6 Axis Serial Robotic Travel Path Feasibility

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

CAMufacturing Solutions Inc.-R. Hedrick
University of Windsor-R.J. Urbanic
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0336
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation. The feasible region for all orientations is determined by the use of Boolean intersections of the boundary curves or by overlapping valid regions in which points are placed. Combining the tool path and functional work space regions allow designers to readily visualize regions of concern. A KUKA and Comau robot are used to illustrate…
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A Study on the Impact Resistance of Plastic Underbody Parts

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

DuPont Engineering Polymers-Yong Sun (Steven) Jin
Hyundai Motor Company-Jee Young Youn, Seok Hwan Kim
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0515
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Impact resistance of plastic underbody parts was studied using simulated injection-molded specimen which can be tested according to different types of material used, injection molding variants like position and number of injection molding gates, and features of ribs. Material applied was glass fiber reinforced polyamide which can be used in underbody parts. Test was performed using several combinations of injection molding gates and rib types. From the test result, optimal design guide for plastic underbody parts was determined. Also, new high impact resistant plastic material made of glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 (PA66) and polyamide 6 (PA6) alloy was developed and the material properties useful for CAE were determined. As a case study, oil pan and muffler housing were designed following the optimal design guide and CAE. And the reliability of the sample muffler housing designed was verified.
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Research on Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Viscoelastic Response of Polyvinyl Butaral Film

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Tsinghua University-Xiaoqing Xu, Bohan Liu, Yan Wang, Yibing Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0519
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The mechanical behavior of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film plays an important role in windshield crashworthiness and pedestrian protection and should be depth study. In this article, the uniaxial tension tests of PVB film at various strain rates (0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, 1 s-1) and temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 10°C, 23°C, 40°C, 55°C, 70°C) are conducted to investigate its mechanical behavior. Then, temperature and strain rate dependent viscoelastic characteristics of PVB are systematically studied. The results show that PVB is a kind of temperature and strain rate sensitive thermal viscoelastic material. Temperature increase and strain rate decrease have the same influence on mechanical properties of PVB. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of PVB change non-linearly with temperature and strain rate. Finally, two thermal viscoelastic constitutive model (ZWT model and DSGZ model) are suggested to describe the tension behavior of PVB film at various strain rates and temperatures. Tension response of PVB at 0°C-70°C is simulated based on ZWT model, while tension response of PVB at -10°C is described using DSGZ model. The fitting results show good…
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Crushing Analysis and Lightweight Design of Tapered Tailor Welded Hybrid Material Tubes under Oblique Impact

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Dalian University of Technology-Chang Qi, Yong Sun, Shu Yang, Yu Du
SAIC Motor Technique Center-Da-Zhi Wang, Guang-Jun Cao
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0407
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The increasing demand for lightweight design of the whole vehicle has raised critical weight reduction targets for crash components such as front rails without deteriorating their crash performances. To this end the last few years have witnessed a huge growth in vehicle body structures featuring hybrid materials including steel and aluminum alloys. In this work, a type of tapered tailor-welded tube (TTWT) made of steel and aluminum alloy hybrid materials was proposed to maximize the specific energy absorption (SEA) and to minimize the peak crushing force (PCF) in an oblique crash scenario. The hybrid tube was found to be more robust than the single material tubes under oblique impacts using validated finite element (FE) models. Compared with the aluminum alloy tube and the steel tube, the hybrid tube can increase the SEA by 46.3% and 86.7%, respectively, under an impact angle of 30°. Parameter analyses were performed to reveal the influence of four geometrical variables on the crashworthiness of the TTWTs. In addition, the radial basis function (RBF) metamodels were built for the SEA and…
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Multi-Disciplinary Tolerance Optimization for Internal Combustion Engines Using Gaussian Process and Sequential MDO Method

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Jianhua Zhou, Mian LI, Min Xu
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0303
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The internal combustion engine (ICE) is a typical complex multidisciplinary system which requires the support of precision design and manufacturing. To achieve a better performance of ICEs, tolerance assignment, or tolerance design, plays an important role. A novel multi-disciplinary tolerance design optimization problem considering two important disciplines of ICEs, the compression ratio and friction loss, is proposed and solved in this work, which provides a systematic procedure for the optimal determination of tolerances and overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional experience-based tolerance design. A bi-disciplinary analysis model is developed in this work to assist the problem solving, within which a model between the friction loss and tolerance is built based on the Gaussian Process using the corresponding simulation and experimental data. In addition, the formulation of the compression ratio considering those non-critical dimensions which actually affect the friction loss is proposed. Finally the multi-disciplinary tolerance design optimization problem is formulated and solved using a recently developed sequential MDO (S-MDO) method.
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