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Inventory Management and Control using ‘Probability Distribution Function’

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Abhiraj Kachare
General Motors India, Ltd.-Vinayak Ramesh Angane
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9098
Published 2014-01-15 by SAE International in United States
For any organization, inventory management has come up as a big challenge to handle. Since, there are extensive variations in the products; the hurdles related to this issue get more intensified. Thus, the prediction of correct number of inventory between two different manufacturing systems is difficult and needs absolute understanding about the respective behavior of the system. In this paper the illustrations are about the application of ‘probability distribution function’ (or the PDF) in order to gain understanding about the behavior of the system in different working conditions, such as FTQ, uptime, etc. PDF assists in representing line behavior in terms of graphic distribution and comprehensive. Thus, the process gets easier to control inventory within the confidence level and further saves procurement costs, area of shed and costs of material handling. This is applicable for an automobile OEM that has savings over items with ‘A’ class ranking within procurement cost.
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Fleet Vehicle Idling - Are Supplemental Hybrid Idling Reduction Systems the Answer?

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Fleet Challenge Canada-Allan King
University of Windsor-Lindita Prendi, Edwin Tam
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9095
Published 2014-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Environmental concerns and rising fuel costs are driving Ontario's municipalities and fleet operators to consider alternative vehicle technologies. Elevated fuel consumption and air emissions are attributed to the unique operations of fleet vehicles and in particular, during idling. While drivers of passenger vehicles may have the option of simply not idling, fleet and emergency vehicle operators, may need to keep the vehicle operating to supply power to critical onboard equipment. These demands may be exacerbated during seasonal, temperature extremes. However, prolonged idling can impose significant environmental and economic burdens. Hybrid vehicles have yet to be utilized widely by Ontario's fleets, but there are other approaches to reduce emissions, including alternative “green” technologies to operate in-vehicle equipment and maintain fleet vehicle capabilities instead of idling. Fleet Challenge Ontario (FCO) embarked on several innovative initiatives to develop and implement a supplementary Hybrid Idling Reduction System (HIRS) to reduce the impacts from idling of fleet vehicles, and in particular police and EMS (PEMS) vehicles. The objective of the PEMS project was to demonstrate that the technology will lower…
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Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Argonne National Laboratory-Robin Graham
Big Island Carbon-Fred Baker
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9092
Published 2014-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg−1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year−1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year−1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed.…
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Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Turning Process

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Lecturer, BUET-Tanveer Hossain Bhuiyan, Imtiaz Ahmed
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9097
Published 2014-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Predicting the main cutting force during turning is of great importance as it helps in setting the appropriate cutting parameters before machining starts. Again, optimization of cutting parameters is one of the most important elements in any process planning of metal parts as economy of machining operation plays a key role in gaining competitive advantage. This paper presents an experimental study of main cutting force in turning of AISI 1040 steel and developing a model of the main cutting force during turning using Response surface Methodology (RSM) as well as optimization of machining parameters using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The second order empirical model of the main cutting force in terms of machining parameters have been developed based on experimental results. The experimentation has been carried out considering three machining parameters: cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as independent variables and the main cutting force as the response variable. The formulated model has been validated against new set of experimental values using Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE) method. The Genetic Algorithm approach is also…
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Preparation and Characterization of HDPE/Silane-Modified Nanoclay Composites for Application in Fuel Storage

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Global TS Manager, Nano Specialty Inc-Mukul R. Jain
Vardhman Technologies-Chhavi Jain, Sunil Shah, R C Jain
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9096
Published 2014-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Organophilic nanoclay that was prepared by surface modification of Montmorillonite clay with quaternary ammonium compound was further treated with a surface modifier (silane). Subsequently, different composites were obtained by blending 5 wt % of clay, nanoclay, or silane-treated nanoclay with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using Brabender Plasticorder. The morphology of the prepared composites was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the effect of the surface modifier on the dispersion of clay platelets in the polymer matrix was studied by elemental mapping using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Results indicate that the use of silane significantly improves the dispersion of nanoclay, resulting in enhanced mechanical properties. Furthermore, the effect of surface modification on the barrier properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by determining the long-term permeation rate of xylene and gasoline in blow-molded containers made of HDPE, HDPE/clay composite, HDPE/nanoclay composite, and HDPE/silane-treated nanoclay composite at 23 and 50°C. Of all the composites, the composite with 5 wt.% silane-modified nanoclay showed the best barrier performance. In particular, the barrier property of HDPE/silane-treated nanoclay nanocomposite…
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Modularity Adoption in Product Development: A Case Study in the Brazilian Agricultural Machinery Industry

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Federal University of Technology-Paraná.-Milton Borsato
Fiat Industrial SpA-Rodrigo Mayer de Ávila
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9093
Published 2014-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Facing a competitive and globalized market and with increasingly demanding customers, companies must constantly seek the development of practices in the development of new products. One of the current practices is the adoption of modularity. In that sense, the objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis of this practice in a Brazilian company, which manufactures agricultural machinery. The applicability of modular design in current products is focused. Therefore, a case study approach has been chosen. First, a review of the scientific literature was conducted, followed by field research, for collecting data based on interviews with product engineers and technical documentation. The case study shows the applicability of the modular design concept in a combine header, by increasing the number of repeated components. The modular header approach facilitates the implementation of engineering changes and allows greater standardization of components. In addition, it contributes for greater flexibility, as it is possible to create a wider range of product configurations and satisfy specific customer needs. The proposed modular design can provide further benefits such as product…
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Full Field Non-Contact Investigation of Deformation Fields in Fillet and Plug Welds

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Hyundai Motor Group-Kil Won Song
University of Wisconsin-MIlwaukee-David Roehrich, Rani El-Hajjar
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9096
Published 2014-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Fillet and plug weld are commonly used in structural applications in commercial heavy vehicles. This paper is primarily concerned with an investigation of the full field deformations fields in fillet and plug welds using three dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC). Two identical vehicle parts are constructed using a fillet weld for one specimen, and a plug weld for the other. The specimens are loaded under quasi-static conditions with simultaneous measurement of load, displacements and strain gage measurements. Strain gage locations are selected based on the results of a finite element analysis model. 3D-DIC measurements are constructed using a two camera setup. Thus, 3D-DIC measurements are compared to strain gage measurements and finite element predictions. The effectiveness of the non-contact full field method is evaluated for application to studying the weld details considered and potential for fatigue damage and durability.
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A Sequence Retainable Iterative Algorithm for Rainflow Cycle Counting

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Northwestern Polytechnical university-Dongfang Jiang
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9091
Published 2014-01-15 by SAE International in United States
To get a sequence retainable rainflow cycle counting algorithm for fatigue analysis, an alternate equivalent explanation to rainflow cycle counting is introduced, based on which an iterative rainflow counting algorithm is proposed. The algorithm decomposes any given load-time history with more than one crest into three sub-histories by two troughs; each sub-history with more than one crest is iteratively decomposed into three shorter sub-histories, till each sub-history obtained contains only one single or no crest. Every sub-history that contains a single crest corresponds to a local closed (full) cycle. The mean load and alternate load component of the local cycle are calculated in parallel with the iterative procedure. After a local cycle is counted and its constituent crest and trough are removed from the analyzed load-time history, history reconstruction from remnants of the original load-time history is not needed before successive iterative counting, which is a preferable property different from other rainflow cycle counting algorithms. The algorithm can count local cycles in the analyzed load-time history in their chronological order. The first extracted cycle can…
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The Effect of Surface Morphology of Cylinder Bore Surface on Anti-Scuffing Property made by High Pressure Die-Casting Process using Hyper-Eutectic Al-Si Alloy

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.-Takehiro Uhara, Hirotaka Kurita
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9046
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A monolithic type aluminum (Al) cylinder made of hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon alloy has been widely used for motorcycle applications. It has a lightweight structure and a superior cooling ability owing to its material property and surface finishing.Usually the cylinder bore surface of the monolithic type Al cylinder is finished by an etching process or a honing process in order to expose silicon (Si) particles from aluminum (Al) matrix for the improvement of the tribological properties. The morphology of the cylinder bore surface including the exposure of Si particles is supposed to make an important effect on its tribological properties, especially on the anti-scuffing property.In this research, the anti-scuffing property of three kinds of cylinder bore finishing, an etched surface, a Si exposure honed surface and a conventional plateau honed surface is evaluated with using a reciprocated type wear tester. The experimental results are analyzed by using Weibull analysis. It is shown that the experimental data of the anti-scuffing property can be evaluated quantitatively by Weibull analysis. It is revealed that the etched surface shows superior anti-scuffing…
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Application of Vacuum Assisted Carbide Dispersion Carbonitriding to Connecting Rods

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.-Tsuyoshi Kubota
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9082
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In four-cycle single-cylinder motorcycle engines, high Hertzian stress is generated on and beneath the big-end surface of the connecting rod. If the surface strength would be improved, the diameter of the big-end could be made smaller, making the entire engine smaller and lighter. Therefore, application of carbide dispersion carbonitriding using a vacuum furnace (hereinafter referred to as “vacuum CD carbonitriding”) on the big-end surface was investigated. Vacuum CD carbonitriding was carried out by three processes. The first was a CD carburizing process. This process is done to obtain granular cementite, but in order to avoid decreasing the strength, it is necessary to prevent the formation of coarsened cementite at the grain boundary. The second process was a refining process. This process is done for the purpose of refining the prior austenite grain size. The third process was a carbonitriding process. This process is done for the purpose of increasing hardness in the vicinity of the surface. The strength of vacuum CD carbonitrided specimen was evaluated using a ball-on-disk type rolling-contact-fatigue testing machine. Vacuum CD carbonitriding…
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