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RETRACTED: Reengineering the Layout: A CMS Methodological Approach

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Laxminarayan Institute of Technology-Jayant Hemachandra Bhangale, Ashish Manohar Mahalle
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9100
Published 2014-06-06 by SAE International in United States
Presently, most of the companies have combination of process and product layout. Cellular manufacturing is a place where company has established one or more manufacturing cells. Due to competition, Automobile industries are changing existing plant layout to “Cellular Layout” in which manufacturing process is carried out by proper arrangement of machines. This research paper aims at the optimization of cellular manufacturing layout using: cell formation stage, cell layout stage. In the first stage, a heuristic based upon the material flow is developed, which allows the machines to be clustered more naturally. In the second stage, a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the machine layout within each cell, in which a previously defined material handling system is provided. This representation allows the design of the layout and aisle-structure simultaneously, and can be converted into a string representation adaptable by a genetic algorithm for optimization. The number of aisles in the optimized aisle-structure is also minimized. A computational experiment was carried out based upon solving three problems from the literature. The results showed that cell configuration…
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Impacts of Non-Traditional Uses of Polyurethane Foam in Automotive Applications at End of Life

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ of Windsor-Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin Tam
Univ. of Windsor-Lindsay J. Miller
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9099
Published 2014-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Polyurethane (PU) foam is used for many automotive applications with the benefits of being lightweight, durable, and resistant to heat and noise. Applications of PU foams are increasing to include non-traditional purposes targeting consumer comfort. An example of this is the use of PU foam between the engine and engine cover of a vehicle for the purpose of noise abatement. This addition will provide a quieter ride for the consumer, however will have associated environmental impacts. The additional weight will cause an increase in fuel consumption and related emissions. More significant impacts may be realized at the end-of-life stage. Recycling PU foams presents several challenges; a lack of market for the recyclate, contamination of the foams, and lack of accessibility for removal of the material. PU foam pieces are likely to end up being landfilled after the vehicle is shredded, negating the benefit of choosing this material for its recyclability over another non-recyclable material. PU foams have been credited with contributing to the light weighting of vehicles, however it is important to distinguish between cases…
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Design Analysis for Origami-Based Folded Sheet Metal Parts

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Clemson University ICAR-Ala Qattawi, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Ahmad Mayyas, Mohammed Omar
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9098
Published 2014-04-20 by SAE International in United States
1The manufacturing of Origami based sheet metal products is a promising technology, mostly in terms of reducing the tooling and process complexity. This procedure can also be called fold forming, as it depends on exclusively shaping the required geometry via sequence of bends. However, the design analysis and modeling of folded sheet metal products are not fully mature, especially in terms of determining the best approach for transferring the analysis from a three-dimensional (3D) to a two-dimensional (2D) context. This manuscript discusses the extension of the Origami technique to the fold forming of sheet metal products represented in modeling approach and design considerations for the topological variations, the geometrical validity, and the variance of stress-based performance. This paper also details the optimization metrics that were developed to reflect the design and manufacturing differences among the possible topological and geometrical options for a single part design. These metrics target five different optimization objectives: material utilization, cost, ease of manufacturability, ease of handling, and mechanical behavior estimation.A boundary representation is first used to embody the 3D geometry…
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S-N Curve Modeling for Finite Life Range under the Assumption of Linearly Changing Scatter

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Schaeffler Holding (China) Co., Ltd.-Zhou Yingjie
Schaeffler Trading (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.-Tang Xuezhi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0970
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue test data in finite life region are normally analyzed separately for each stress level because of varying scatters, while another method assuming equal scatters on all levels and thus unifying all data into one model is also welcome for its efficient usage of data. Combining the idea of the two methods, a new method that assumes linear change of scatter according to stress levels is developed in this paper. The algorithm derives from maximum likelihood estimation and general Newton's method. Monte Carlo method is used for theoretical validation and the new method is proved to be correct with the estimations. Finally a set of test data which shows a tendency of trapezoidal data distribution is analyzed and an S-N curve for finite life range is created. The new method has its advantage in certain situations so it's meaningful to add it to the alternatives of fatigue data analysis methods.
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Enhancing Decision Topology Assessment in Engineering Design

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland Univ.-Vijitashwa Pandey, Zissimos Mourelatos
US Army TARDEC-Matthew Castanier
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0719
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Implications of decision analysis (DA) on engineering design are important and well-documented. However, widespread adoption has not occurred. To that end, the authors recently proposed decision topologies (DT) as a visual method for representing decision situations and proved that they are entirely consistent with normative decision analysis. This paper addresses the practical issue of assessing the DTs of a designer using their responses. As in classical DA, this step is critical to encoding the DA's preferences so that further analysis and mathematical optimization can be performed on the correct set of preferences. We show how multi-attribute DTs can be directly assessed from DM responses. Furthermore, we show that preferences under uncertainty can be trivially incorporated and that topologies can be constructed using single attribute topologies similarly to multi-linear functions in utility analysis. This incremental construction simplifies the process of topology construction. The methods are demonstrated using a design decision making problem of a welded beam.
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Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sujit Das
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1004
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America.LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production (“Baseline”), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design (“LWSV”), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles' engine, driveline and suspension.A “cradle-to-cradle” life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life…
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Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Alloys under Multiaxial Loading

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

General Motors Co.-Qigui Wang, Yucong Wang
Tongji University-Guoqiu He
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0972
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue behavior of aluminum alloys under multiaxial loading was investigated with both cast aluminum A356-T6 and wrought alloy 6063-T6. The dominant multiaxial fatigue crack preferentially nucleates from flaws like porosity and oxide films located near the free surface of the material. In the absence of the flaws, the cracking/debonding of the second phase particles dominates the crack initiation and propagation. The number of cracked/debonded particles increases with the number of cycles, but the damage rate depends on loading paths. Among various loading paths studied, the circle loading path shows the shortest fatigue life due to the development of complex dislocation substructures and severe stress concentration near grain/cell boundaries and second phase particles.
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Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Laser Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum and Copper Sheets

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Co.-Yunan Guo, Xuming Su
Univ. of Michigan-Wei-Jen Lai, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1986
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of dissimilar laser welds in lap-shear specimens of aluminum and copper sheets are investigated. Quasi-static tests and fatigue tests of laser-welded lap-shear specimens under different load ranges with the load ratio of 0.1 were conducted. Optical micrographs of the welds after the tests were examined to understand the failure modes of the specimens. For the specimens tested under quasi-static loading conditions, the micrograph indicates that the specimen failed through the fusion zone of the aluminum sheet. For the specimens tested under cyclic loading conditions, two types of failure modes were observed under different load ranges. One failure mode has a kinked crack initiating from the interfacial surface between the aluminum and copper sheets and growing into the aluminum fusion zone at an angle close to 90°. The other failure mode has an interfacial crack initiating at the interfacial surface between the aluminum and copper sheets and growing along the interfacial surface between the fusion zone and the copper base metal at an angle close to 90°. In general, the fatigue…
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A New Metamodeling Approach for Time-Dependent Reliability of Dynamic Systems with Random Parameters Excited by Input Random Processes

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland Univ.-Dorin Drignei, Zissimos Mourelatos, Monica Majcher
US Army TARDEC-Igor Baseski
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0717
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
We propose a new metamodeling method to characterize the output (response) random process of a dynamic system with random parameters, excited by input random processes. The metamodel can be then used to efficiently estimate the time-dependent reliability of a dynamic system using analytical or simulation-based methods. The metamodel is constructed by decomposing the input random processes using principal components or wavelets and then using a few simulations to estimate the distributions of the decomposition coefficients. A similar decomposition is also performed on the output random process. A kriging model is then established between the input and output decomposition coefficients and subsequently used to quantify the output random process corresponding to a realization of the input random parameters and random processes. What distinguishes our approach from others in metamodeling is that the system input is not deterministic but random. The quantified output random process is finally used to estimate the time-dependent reliability or probability of failure of the dynamic system using the total probability theorem. The proposed method is illustrated with a numerical example.
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Development of an Air Filtration Software

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Röchling Automotive SE & Co. KG-Marco Barbolini
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0758
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The air filters in an air intake system permanently remove foreign particles such as dust, dirt and soot from the intake air, thereby maintaining the performance of the engine and protecting it from damage. The filter performance is typically a trade-off between pressure loss, load capacity and efficiency. Exhaust gas regulations and customer requirements such as filter duration always determine air filter development.For this reason Röchling Automotive has developed a new software tool for estimating air filter lifetime which simplifies and significantly shortens the pre-development of filter elements with regard to filtration and pressure drop. In addition, it is possible to compare the different filter geometries (number of pleats, height, paper etc.) in order to limit the number of different filter elements, for example for a complete series of cars.By correlating the total air consumption with the average dust concentration typical for the environment involved, the air filter lifetime can be precisely predicted. The program utilizes input data such as the maximum flow rate, the condition of the ambient air, filter geometry, filter media and…
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