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Evaluation of Ground Vehicle Wind Noise Transmission through Glasses Using Statistical Energy Analysis

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Cambridge Collaborative Inc.-Patricia Manning, Jerome Manning, Chadwyck Musser
Jaguar Land Rover, Ltd.-George Peng
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1930
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
The contribution of wind noise through the glasses into the vehicle cabin is a large source of customer concern. The wind noise sources generated by turbulent flow incident on the vehicle surfaces and the transmission mechanisms by which the noise is transmitted to the interior of the vehicle are complex and difficult to predict using conventional analysis techniques including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analyses are complicated by the large differences between turbulent pressures and acoustic pressures. Testing in dedicated acoustic wind tunnel (AWT) facilities is often performed to evaluate the contribution of wind noise to the vehicle interior noise in the absence of any other noise sources. However, this testing is time-consuming and expensive and test hardware for the vehicle being developed is often not yet available at early stages of vehicle design. In addition, modifications of the vehicle exterior geometry that may be beneficial to interior noise are often difficult to implement during the testing or to evaluate properly via test. This paper describes a test-based approach to measuring and understanding the…
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Prediction of Biot Properties for Describing Fibrous Materials in SEA Models

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

ESI North America-Terence Connelly
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1993
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
SEA models are used to predict the performance of acoustic packages when assessing the performance of vehicle level or body noise reduction targets. One of the challenges faced by CAE engineers is the ability to estimate the performance of different materials used in the sound package at the design stage. Analysts can use measured data in the form of insertion loss and random incidence absorption if available or can predict the performance of materials using a Biot type description. The use of the full poro-elastic Biot model for materials requires knowledge of the fluid and elastic properties, however a limp or rigid model can be used to describe the material based only on the fluid properties and this is often sufficient to describe fibrous materials.In this paper a method will be outlined which will allow the material properties of fibrous materials to be estimated from basic normal incidence data that is provided by material suppliers. This approach will then allow the effect of compression on the material properties to be predicted and the impact on…
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A Design of Experiments Analysis to Determine the Importance of Relevant Factors on the STL of an Acoustic Part

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc.-James Haylett
Kolano and Saha Engineers Inc.-Pranab Saha
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2009
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses a design of experiments (DOE) analysis that was performed to understand relevant factors that influence the acoustic performance of a sound package part used in the commercial vehicle industry for the floor mat application. The acoustic performance of the sound package part which is a double wall system and constructed of a barrier and cellular decoupler material is expressed in terms of sound transmission loss (STL). An experiment was designed using the Taguchi DOE technique with three factors and three levels to acquire the STL data and is discussed in the paper. The results of the DOE analysis and the confidence in the model are discussed as well as the benefits of predicting expected STL performances are mentioned in the paper.
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Sampling-Based RBDO Using Score Function with Re-Weighting Scheme

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Co.-Ren-Jye Yang
Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Lei Shi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0377
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Sampling-based methods are general but time consuming for solving a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) problem. In order to alleviate the computation burden, score function together with the Monte Carlo method was used to compute the stochastic sensitivities of reliability functions. In literature, re-weighting schemes were shown to converge faster than the regular Monte Carlo method. In this paper, a reweighting scheme together with score function is employed to perform sampling-based stochastic sensitivity analysis to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy. An analytical example is used to show the advantages of the proposed method. Comparisons to the conventional methods are made and discussed. Two RBDO problems are solved to demonstrate the use of the proposed method.
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New Metrics to Assess Reliability and Functionality of Repairable Systems

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland University-Vijitashwa Pandey, Zissimos Mourelatos
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0606
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The classical definition of reliability may not be readily applicable for repairable systems. Commonly used concepts such as the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) and availability can be misleading because they only report limited information about the system functionality. In this paper, we discuss a set of metrics that can help with the design of repairable systems. Based on a set of desirable properties for these metrics, we select a minimal set of metrics (MSOM) which provides the most information about a system, with the smallest number of metrics. The metric of Minimum Failure Free Period (MFFP) with a given probability generalizes MTBF because the latter is simply the MFFP with a 0.5 probability. It also generalizes availability because coupled with repair times it provides a clearer picture of the length of the expected uninterrupted service. Two forms of MFFP are used: transient and steady state. Other metrics of cost, planning horizon, number of failures within the planning horizon are also used. We also present in this paper the metric of effective age which has…
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Periodic Reverse Flow and Boiling Fluctuations in a Microchannel Evaporator of an R134a Mobile Air-Conditioning System

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Hanfei Tuo, Predrag Hrnjak
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1500
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents experimental study of periodic reverse flow and induced boiling fluctuations in a microchannel evaporator and their impacts on performance of R134a mobile A/C system.Simultaneous flow visualization and pressure measurements revealed that reverse flow due to confined bubble longitudinal expansion caused periodic oscillations of the evaporator inlet pressure and the pressure drop, and their oscillation magnitude and frequency increase with ambient air temperatures because of higher average refrigerant mass flux and heat flux. Three potential impacts of vapor reverse flow reversal on evaporator performance are identified: 1) mild liquid maldistribution; 2) increased the evaporator pressure drop; 3) reduced heat transfer coefficient.Finally, to mitigate vapor reverse flow impacts, revised flash gas bypass (FGBR) method is proposed: vent and bypass backflow vapor trapped in the inlet header. Experimental results showed that system performances are further improved by an up to 5% higher capacity and an up to 3% higher COP.
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Lean Implementation in Integrated Design and Manufacturing

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Kettering University-Mohamed El-Sayed
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1329
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Lean applications in product development usually start with manufacturing due to the relative experience of measuring improvements and identifying wastes in physical settings. The full potential of lean implementation in any product development, however, can only be realized when applied throughout the process, starting with early process. Considering that the first and most essential principle in lean implementation is the characterization of value from the customer's perspective, it is imperative that the proper definition of value is realized at the beginning of the process. In addition, streaming and flowing of this customer's specified value should be realized throughout the process from start to finish.This paper discusses the application of lean principles to integrated design and manufacturing phases of the Product Development Process. The importance of introducing lean principles at the beginning of the product development phases for successful lean implementation is demonstrated. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the lean application of integrated design and manufacturing phases from inception to a validated concept.
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Effect of Lubricant on Two-phase Refrigerant Distribution in Microchannel Evaporator

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Huize Li, Predrag Hrnjak
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1508
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a model analysis of oil effects on the distribution of two phase refrigerant in a parallel flow microchannel evaporator. A microchannel evaporator model developed and presented earlier (SAE paper 2012-01-0321) is enhanced by inclusion of the thermodynamic and transport properties of refrigerant-oil mixture and their impact on boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. R134a and PAG oil are selected as the working pair. Viscosity effect and OCR effect on refrigerant distribution are investigated using this model, and the results show that 1) High viscosity is detrimental for refrigerant distribution. 2) As OCR increases, distribution becomes worse; but at very high OCR, distribution becomes better. Some initial experimental results show that distribution becomes worse when OCR changes from 0.1% to 3%.
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A New Approach to the Test, Assessment and Optimization of Robust Electrical Distribution Systems

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Kassel-Ludwig Brabetz, Mohamed Ayeb, Giscard Jilwan, Patrick Graebel, Tobias Kerner
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0396
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Both the electrical portion of the powertrain and the rising number of auxiliary systems will considerably increase the electrical power requirements in future vehicles. In addition, multiple voltage supply levels will enhance the complexity of the electrical distribution system (EDS), while strict cost, weight, packaging, and safety constraints must be upheld, posing serious design challenges in terms of robustness, reliability and energy efficiency.Currently, a self-contained integral test or evaluation of the EDS is normally not applied. For such a purpose, quantitative quality criteria are introduced here which allow a comparative assessment of an EDS by addressing the dynamic and static stability of the supply voltage, the reliability of the fusing system, and the ability to provide the required electrical power.The presented approach uses both precisely-defined test scenarios and a comprehensive EDS test bench. It is based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) system with an extensive measurement set-up allowing the determination of the quality criteria mentioned above. Thus, thorough investigations into the impact of the dimensioning of EDS components as well as of new architectures can be…
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Combined Variation Modeling of Structural and Tuning Components for Vehicle Performance Assessment

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Chrysler Group LLC-Bo Zhang, James Robertson, Glenn Whitehead
Satyam-Venture Engineering Service Ltd.-Ravindranadh Pillutla
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0944
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
During the vehicle development process, dimensional variation simulation modeling has been applied extensively to estimate the effects of build variation on the final product. Traditional variation simulation methods analyze the tolerance inputs of structural components, but do not account for any compliance effects due to stiffness variation in tuning components, such as bushings, springs, isolators, etc., since both product and process variation are simulated based on rigid-body assumptions. Vehicle performance objectives such as ride and handling (R&H) often involve these compliance metrics. The objective of this paper is to present a method to concurrently simulate the tolerance from the structural parts as well as the variability of compliance from the tuning components through an integration package. The combination of these two highly influential effects will allow for a more accurate prediction and assessment of vehicle performance. Vehicle alignment modeling is used as the case study in this paper to demonstrate this developed process because the variability of alignment is a key contributor that impacts handling performance. The benefit of coupling tolerance analysis and system compliance…
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