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Innovative Processing Technology of Chromium Carbide Coating to Apprise Performance of Piston Rings

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Bryskin Metallurgical Consulting-Boris Bryskin
Khlopin Radium Institute-Alexander Kostylev, Yuriy Pokrovskiy, Alexander Lumpov
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2327
Published 2013-04-09 by SAE International in United States
A chemical vapor deposition method for preparing high-quality chromium carbide coatings was developed. The resulting coatings exhibit high adhesion and increase wear resistance of the cylinder piston group components as compared to common coatings prepared by electrolytic chromium plating. The operation performance of the coatings was tested using scrapper piston of the Raba-Man diesel engine of Ikarus bus and compression and oil scrapper rings of the diesel engine 10D100. It was found that chromium coatings prepared by the method proposed are characterized by relatively low coefficient of friction and high corrosion resistance.
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Fusion Welding of Vacuum High Pressure Die Cast Aluminum Alloy A356 and Wrought Alloy 6061

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ. of Windsor-Meng Wang, Henry Hu
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1026
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Recently, joining of cast aluminum components with wrought and/or cast similar metals becomes an urgent task for the auto industry to develop light-weight complex and large-scale chassis and body structures for further reduction in vehicle weight. In this study, fusion-joining of vacuum high pressure die cast (VHPDC) alloy A356 subjected to T5 heat treatment and wrought alloy 6061 with the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW-MIG) process was experimented in an effort to understand the effect of the MIG process on the microstructure development and tensile behaviors of the base alloys (T5 A356 and 6061), Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Fusion Zone (filler metal ER4043). The results of tensile testing indicated that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS) and elongation (Ef) of VHPDC T5 A356 were relatively high, compared to both wrought alloy 6061 and the filler metal (ER 4043). The microstructure analysis showed that the improvement in the tensile properties of T5 A356 should be mainly attributed to the minimized porosity content, the presence of strengthening intermetallic phases and fine grain structure, which…
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Fatigue Behavior of Self-Piercing Rivets and Clinch Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum Sheets

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Chung Cheng Univ.-Pai-Chen Lin, Zheng-Ming Su
Univ of Michigan-Ann Arbor-Wei-Jen Lai, Jwo Pan
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1024
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue behavior of self-piercing rivets (SPRs) and clinch joints in lap-shear specimens of 6111-T4 aluminum sheets is investigated based on experimental observations and a fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens with SRPs and clinch joints were tested under cyclic loading conditions. Under cyclic loading conditions, fatigue cracks start from the curved interfacial surface of the upper sheet and then grow into the upper sheet thickness for both self-piercing rivets and clinch joints. The self-piercing rivets and clinch joints fail finally through the circumferential/transverse crack growth in the upper sheets and inner button crack growth, respectively. The structural stress solution and the experimental stress-life data for aluminum 6111-T4 sheets are adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of both types of joints. The fatigue life estimations based on the structural stress model show good agreement with the experimental results.
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Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

CanmetMATERIALS-Jidong Kang
Honda R&D Americas Inc-Duane Detwiler
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0608
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite).Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures. A strain-rate-sensitive constitutive model is used to model the as-quenched behavior of the hot-formed components with tailored microstructures.With an impact mass of 300 kg and total energy of 1.7 kJ, the measured maximum impactor displacement of the tailored components was approximately 9% (7.6
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Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Chrysler Group LLC-Robert Burger, Yung-Li Lee
Oakland Univ-Keyu Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1007
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution. Vice versa, the input excitation PSD is directly derived in terms of a given FDS and test duration. Finally, a random vibration test profile in PSD is obtained by varying the test duration such that the FDS calculated…
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Analysis of Residual Strain Profiles in Distorted Aluminum Engine Blocks by Neutron Diffraction

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Research Council Canada-Dimitry Sediako
Nemak of Canada-Robert Mackay
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0171
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, light weight components have been an area of significant importance in automotive design. This has led to the replacement of steel and cast iron with aluminum alloys for many automotive components. For instance, Al-Si alloys have successfully replaced nodular and gray cast iron in the production of large automotive components such as engine blocks. However, excessive residual strain along the cylinder bores of these engine blocks may result in cylinder distortion during engine operation. Therefore, in this study, neutron diffraction was used to evaluate residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge and the gray cast iron liners of distorted and undistorted engine blocks. The strains were measured in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The results suggest that the residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge of the distorted engine block was tensile for all three measured components. Conversely, the undistorted engine block had compressive strains in the axial and radial orientations, while the hoop direction had tensile strain of lower magnitude. The gray iron liners, meanwhile, had compressive residual strain for…
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Estimation of Secondary Mass Changes in Vehicle Design

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Fka - Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwe-Roland Wohlecker
RWTH Aachen Univ.-René Göbbels
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0655
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that an unplanned component mass increase during vehicle design creates a ripple effect of changes throughout the vehicle subsystems, which require resizing for the additional mass. This in turn, increases overall vehicle mass. And the opposite is true in vehicle mass reduction where subsystem resizing is necessary to account for an initial mass reduction enabled, for example, by a new technology. These secondary mass changes can be significant and must be considered in the mass budgeting process due to their importance to fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission assessments. Secondary mass reduction may be modeled using subsystem mass influence coefficients-the incremental change in subsystem mass for a unit change in gross vehicle mass. This paper focuses on means to estimate influence coefficients using two methods: Analytical and Regression.
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Comparison of Austempering and Quench-and-Tempering Processes for Carburized Automotive Steels

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Chrysler Group LLC-Xichen Sun, Peter Bauerle
University of Windsor-Andrew D. Clark, Derek O. Northwood, Randy J. Bowers
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0173
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Carburized parts often see use in powertrain components for the automotive industry. These parts are commonly quenched and tempered after the carburizing process. The present study compared the austempering heat treatment to the traditional quench-and-temper process for carburized parts. Samples were produced from SAE 8620, 4320, and 8822 steels and heat treated across a range of conditions for austempering and for quench-and-tempering. Distortion was examined through the use of Navy C-Ring samples. Microstructure, hardness, and Charpy toughness were also examined. X-ray diffraction was used to compare the residual stress found in the case of the components after the quench-and-temper and the austempering heat treatments. Austempering samples showed less distortion and higher compressive residual stresses, while maintaining comparable hardness values in both case and core. Toughness measurements were also comparable between both processes.
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Fatigue Evaluation of Notched Plate Specimens by the Battelle Structural Stress Method

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Battelle-Jeong Kyun Hong, Thomas Forte
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1011
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, the applicability of the finite element-based, mesh insensitive Battelle structural stress method is demonstrated for fatigue life predictions of notched specimens (non-welded) with different specimen types, and notch shapes. Well-documented notch fatigue data were analyzed using the Battelle structural stress fatigue evaluation procedure, including notched plate fatigue data for steel and aluminum alloys.The effectiveness of the Battelle structural stress procedure has been demonstrated in a series of earlier publications for welded structures with different joint types, plate thicknesses, and loading modes. Here, a similar Battelle structural stress procedure suitable for finite element modeling and service life simulations is proposed for structures with notches. Unlike weld fatigue data, the crack propagation portion of the fatigue life associated with a notch does not always dominant the total number of cycles to failure. It depends on the stress state at the notch tip. Also, mean stress effects can be seen clearly in S-N curves for notched fatigue data.Based on the characteristics of the notch stress, a structural stress calculation procedure for notched plates is proposed.…
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Corrosion Behavior of Mixed-Metal Joint of Magnesium to Mild Steel by Ultrasonic Spot Welding with and without Adhesives

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Consultant-Michael Santella
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Tsung-Yu Pan, Zhili Feng, Jian Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1017
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Development of reliable magnesium (Mg) to steel joining methods is one of the critical issues in broader applications of Mg in automotive body construction. Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) has been demonstrated successfully to join Mg to steel and to achieve strong joints. In this study, corrosion test of ultrasonic spot welds between 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 and 0.8 mm thick galvanized mild steel, without and with adhesive, was conducted. Adhesive used was a one-component, heat-cured epoxy material, and was applied between overlapped sheets before USW. Corrosion test was conducted with an automotive cyclic corrosion test, which includes cyclic exposures of dipping in the 0.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) bath, a constant humidity environment, and a drying period. Lap shear strength of the joints decreased with the cycles of corrosion exposure. Good joint strengths were retained at the end of 30-cycle test. Failure mode of joints without adhesive was Mg nugget pull-out, but was interfacial failure of samples with adhesive. Metal-metal bonding between Mg and steel was maintained throughout 30 cycles of corrosion exposure. Joint strength…
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