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Evaluation of Ground Vehicle Wind Noise Transmission through Glasses Using Statistical Energy Analysis

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Cambridge Collaborative Inc.-Patricia Manning, Jerome Manning, Chadwyck Musser
Jaguar Land Rover, Ltd.-George Peng
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1930
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
The contribution of wind noise through the glasses into the vehicle cabin is a large source of customer concern. The wind noise sources generated by turbulent flow incident on the vehicle surfaces and the transmission mechanisms by which the noise is transmitted to the interior of the vehicle are complex and difficult to predict using conventional analysis techniques including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analyses are complicated by the large differences between turbulent pressures and acoustic pressures. Testing in dedicated acoustic wind tunnel (AWT) facilities is often performed to evaluate the contribution of wind noise to the vehicle interior noise in the absence of any other noise sources. However, this testing is time-consuming and expensive and test hardware for the vehicle being developed is often not yet available at early stages of vehicle design. In addition, modifications of the vehicle exterior geometry that may be beneficial to interior noise are often difficult to implement during the testing or to evaluate properly via test. This paper describes a test-based approach to measuring and understanding the…
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Prediction of Biot Properties for Describing Fibrous Materials in SEA Models

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

ESI North America-Terence Connelly
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1993
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
SEA models are used to predict the performance of acoustic packages when assessing the performance of vehicle level or body noise reduction targets. One of the challenges faced by CAE engineers is the ability to estimate the performance of different materials used in the sound package at the design stage. Analysts can use measured data in the form of insertion loss and random incidence absorption if available or can predict the performance of materials using a Biot type description. The use of the full poro-elastic Biot model for materials requires knowledge of the fluid and elastic properties, however a limp or rigid model can be used to describe the material based only on the fluid properties and this is often sufficient to describe fibrous materials.In this paper a method will be outlined which will allow the material properties of fibrous materials to be estimated from basic normal incidence data that is provided by material suppliers. This approach will then allow the effect of compression on the material properties to be predicted and the impact on…
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A Design of Experiments Analysis to Determine the Importance of Relevant Factors on the STL of an Acoustic Part

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc.-James Haylett
Kolano and Saha Engineers Inc.-Pranab Saha
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2009
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses a design of experiments (DOE) analysis that was performed to understand relevant factors that influence the acoustic performance of a sound package part used in the commercial vehicle industry for the floor mat application. The acoustic performance of the sound package part which is a double wall system and constructed of a barrier and cellular decoupler material is expressed in terms of sound transmission loss (STL). An experiment was designed using the Taguchi DOE technique with three factors and three levels to acquire the STL data and is discussed in the paper. The results of the DOE analysis and the confidence in the model are discussed as well as the benefits of predicting expected STL performances are mentioned in the paper.
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Innovative Processing Technology of Chromium Carbide Coating to Apprise Performance of Piston Rings

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Bryskin Metallurgical Consulting-Boris Bryskin
Khlopin Radium Institute-Alexander Kostylev, Yuriy Pokrovskiy, Alexander Lumpov
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2327
Published 2013-04-09 by SAE International in United States
A chemical vapor deposition method for preparing high-quality chromium carbide coatings was developed. The resulting coatings exhibit high adhesion and increase wear resistance of the cylinder piston group components as compared to common coatings prepared by electrolytic chromium plating. The operation performance of the coatings was tested using scrapper piston of the Raba-Man diesel engine of Ikarus bus and compression and oil scrapper rings of the diesel engine 10D100. It was found that chromium coatings prepared by the method proposed are characterized by relatively low coefficient of friction and high corrosion resistance.
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Fusion Welding of Vacuum High Pressure Die Cast Aluminum Alloy A356 and Wrought Alloy 6061

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ. of Windsor-Meng Wang, Henry Hu
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1026
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Recently, joining of cast aluminum components with wrought and/or cast similar metals becomes an urgent task for the auto industry to develop light-weight complex and large-scale chassis and body structures for further reduction in vehicle weight. In this study, fusion-joining of vacuum high pressure die cast (VHPDC) alloy A356 subjected to T5 heat treatment and wrought alloy 6061 with the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW-MIG) process was experimented in an effort to understand the effect of the MIG process on the microstructure development and tensile behaviors of the base alloys (T5 A356 and 6061), Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Fusion Zone (filler metal ER4043). The results of tensile testing indicated that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS) and elongation (Ef) of VHPDC T5 A356 were relatively high, compared to both wrought alloy 6061 and the filler metal (ER 4043). The microstructure analysis showed that the improvement in the tensile properties of T5 A356 should be mainly attributed to the minimized porosity content, the presence of strengthening intermetallic phases and fine grain structure, which…
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Fatigue Behavior of Self-Piercing Rivets and Clinch Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum Sheets

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Chung Cheng Univ.-Pai-Chen Lin, Zheng-Ming Su
Univ of Michigan-Ann Arbor-Wei-Jen Lai, Jwo Pan
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1024
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue behavior of self-piercing rivets (SPRs) and clinch joints in lap-shear specimens of 6111-T4 aluminum sheets is investigated based on experimental observations and a fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens with SRPs and clinch joints were tested under cyclic loading conditions. Under cyclic loading conditions, fatigue cracks start from the curved interfacial surface of the upper sheet and then grow into the upper sheet thickness for both self-piercing rivets and clinch joints. The self-piercing rivets and clinch joints fail finally through the circumferential/transverse crack growth in the upper sheets and inner button crack growth, respectively. The structural stress solution and the experimental stress-life data for aluminum 6111-T4 sheets are adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of both types of joints. The fatigue life estimations based on the structural stress model show good agreement with the experimental results.
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Sampling-Based RBDO Using Score Function with Re-Weighting Scheme

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Co.-Ren-Jye Yang
Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Lei Shi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0377
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Sampling-based methods are general but time consuming for solving a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) problem. In order to alleviate the computation burden, score function together with the Monte Carlo method was used to compute the stochastic sensitivities of reliability functions. In literature, re-weighting schemes were shown to converge faster than the regular Monte Carlo method. In this paper, a reweighting scheme together with score function is employed to perform sampling-based stochastic sensitivity analysis to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy. An analytical example is used to show the advantages of the proposed method. Comparisons to the conventional methods are made and discussed. Two RBDO problems are solved to demonstrate the use of the proposed method.
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New Metrics to Assess Reliability and Functionality of Repairable Systems

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland University-Vijitashwa Pandey, Zissimos Mourelatos
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0606
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The classical definition of reliability may not be readily applicable for repairable systems. Commonly used concepts such as the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) and availability can be misleading because they only report limited information about the system functionality. In this paper, we discuss a set of metrics that can help with the design of repairable systems. Based on a set of desirable properties for these metrics, we select a minimal set of metrics (MSOM) which provides the most information about a system, with the smallest number of metrics. The metric of Minimum Failure Free Period (MFFP) with a given probability generalizes MTBF because the latter is simply the MFFP with a 0.5 probability. It also generalizes availability because coupled with repair times it provides a clearer picture of the length of the expected uninterrupted service. Two forms of MFFP are used: transient and steady state. Other metrics of cost, planning horizon, number of failures within the planning horizon are also used. We also present in this paper the metric of effective age which has…
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Periodic Reverse Flow and Boiling Fluctuations in a Microchannel Evaporator of an R134a Mobile Air-Conditioning System

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Hanfei Tuo, Predrag Hrnjak
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1500
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents experimental study of periodic reverse flow and induced boiling fluctuations in a microchannel evaporator and their impacts on performance of R134a mobile A/C system.Simultaneous flow visualization and pressure measurements revealed that reverse flow due to confined bubble longitudinal expansion caused periodic oscillations of the evaporator inlet pressure and the pressure drop, and their oscillation magnitude and frequency increase with ambient air temperatures because of higher average refrigerant mass flux and heat flux. Three potential impacts of vapor reverse flow reversal on evaporator performance are identified: 1) mild liquid maldistribution; 2) increased the evaporator pressure drop; 3) reduced heat transfer coefficient.Finally, to mitigate vapor reverse flow impacts, revised flash gas bypass (FGBR) method is proposed: vent and bypass backflow vapor trapped in the inlet header. Experimental results showed that system performances are further improved by an up to 5% higher capacity and an up to 3% higher COP.
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Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

CanmetMATERIALS-Jidong Kang
Honda R&D Americas Inc-Duane Detwiler
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0608
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite).Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures. A strain-rate-sensitive constitutive model is used to model the as-quenched behavior of the hot-formed components with tailored microstructures.With an impact mass of 300 kg and total energy of 1.7 kJ, the measured maximum impactor displacement of the tailored components was approximately 9% (7.6
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