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Transient Thermal Analysis of Diesel Fuel Systems

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Chrysler Group LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1049
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a transient thermal analysis model for Diesel fuel systems is presented. The purpose of this work is to determine the fuel temperature at various locations along the system, especially inside the tank and at the returned fuel inlet to the tank. Due to the fact that the fuel level is continuously changing during any driving condition, the fuel mass inside the tank is also continuously changing. Consequently, the fuel temperature will change even under steady driving or idle conditions, therefore, this problem should be analyzed using transient thermal analysis models. Effective thermal management requires controlling the surface temperature of the fuel tank, fuel lines and the fuel temperature at the fuel return line as well as inside the tank [1, 2]. Based on the thermal analysis results, it is possible to determine the major source of heat input at several locations of the fuel system. If necessary, a cooling module can be designed to bring down the returned fuel temperature to an acceptable limit. Other thermal protection options that are investigated, in…
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Experimentally Validated Model of Refrigerant Distribution in a Parallel Microchannel Evaporator

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Algirdas Bielskus, Pega Hrnjak
University of Illinois-Hanfei Tuo
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0321
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper develops a model for a parallel microchannel evaporator that incorporates quality variation at the tube inlets and variable mass flow rates among tubes. The flow distribution is based on the equal pressure drop along each flow path containing headers and tubes. The prediction of pressure drop, cooling capacity, and exit superheat strongly agree with 48 different experimental results obtained in four configurations using R134a. Predicted temperature profiles are very close to infrared images of actual evaporator surface. When compared to the uniform distribution model (that assumes uniform distribution of refrigerant mass flow rate and quality) results from the new model indicate superior prediction of cooling capacity, and exit superheat. Model results indicate maldistribution of refrigerant mass flow rate among the parallel tubes, caused primarily by pressure drop in the outlet header.
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Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Effective Thickness of Composite Interfaces

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ of Kentucky-Sesha Spandana Pulla, Y Charles Lu
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0945
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have been increasingly used for high temperature applications in automotive and aerospace industries. Under such conditions, the materials will experience thermomechanical degradation which can cause premature failure of the composite structures. The desire to predict the damage and lifetime of high temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs) and the structural durability for structural applications has been elusive. The success of the multiscale modeling and analysis relies on the experimental capability of properly characterizing the evolution of mechanical behavior of each constituent: matrices, fibers, and interfaces. This paper presents a navel technique, nanoindentation, to identify the interfaces between dissimilar materials and subsequently to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties across the interfaces. It is proposed to use a nanoindenter equipped with small spherical tip, ≺40 nanometers in radius, to indent across the interfaces of dissimilar materials. The proposed method has been validated by conducting a large number of virtual experiments through 3-dimensional finite element simulations, by varying the properties of the two dissimilar materials, including various combinations of modulus (E1/E2), yield strength (σy1/σy2),…
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Study of the Fatigue Failure of Engine Valve Springs Due to Non-Metallic Inclusions

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Lawrence Technological Univ.-Hassan Choucair, Jiazhong Zhou, Badih Ali Jawad, Liping Liu
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0498
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The engine valve spring is a very important component in automotive engine systems. The non-metallic inclusions in an engine valve spring will significantly reduce its reliability. In this study, an attempt was made to establish a correlation between fatigue failures and non-metallic inclusions by applying statistical methods. Fatigue tests with BZ and OTEVA-90 materials are performed with two different types of experiments, which are rotating bending fatigue test (Nakamura test) and spring fatigue test. By using RELIASOFT, the data of these two tests are analyzed with the Weibull distribution in order to statistically estimate BZ and OTEVA-90's fatigue lives at 90% low confidence under different stresses. On the other hand, fatigue strength of these materials can be estimated by Murakami and Endo's model with maximum inclusion size predicted from the Gumbel distribution.
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Full Field Strain Measurement of Punch-stretch Tests Using Digital Image Correlation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland Univ-Xu Chen, Xin Xie, Jianfei Sun, Lianxiang Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0183
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Punch-stretch tests were conducted on Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) specimens. A special stretching mechanism with two embedded high resolution digital cameras had been designed and used in punch-stretch tests. The deforming processes were recorded by the cameras and the full-field strain distribution for each specimen was evaluated using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique, a full-field, non-contact, high accuracy optical and computational technique for contour, displacement and strain measurement. Data of Strain path, necking and other strain behavior were extracted using DIC. Different data analysis methods were tried to achieve useful information for predicting the failure. The data set could be used for researches on the effect of the strain path on the forming limit.
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An Assessment of the Rare Earth Element Content of Conventional and Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Co-Timothy Wallington, Andrew Sherman, Mark Everson
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Elisa Alonso, Frank Field, Richard Roth, Randolph Kirchain
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1061
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Rare earths are a group of elements whose availability has been of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions and environmentally unsustainable mining practices. To evaluate the risks of rare earths availability to automakers, a first step is to determine raw material content and value in vehicles. This task is challenging because rare earth elements are used in small quantities, in a large number of components, and by suppliers far upstream in the supply chain.For this work, data on rare earth content reported by vehicle parts suppliers was assessed to estimate the rare earth usage of a typical conventional gasoline engine midsize sedan and a full hybrid sedan. Parts were selected from a large set of reported parts to build a hypothetical typical mid-size sedan. Estimates of rare earth content for vehicles with alternative powertrain and battery technologies were made based on the available parts' data.We estimate that approximately 0.44 kg of rare earths are used in a typical conventional sedan, with approximately 80% of the rare earth content in magnets. As such, neodymium is the…
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Optimized AHSS Structures for Vehicle Side Impact

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Co-Tau Tyan
United States Steel Corporation-Guofei Chen, Ming F. Shi
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0044
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been widely accepted as a material of choice in the automotive industry to balance overall vehicle weight and stringent vehicle crash test performance targets. Combined with efficient use of geometry and load paths through shape and topology optimization, AHSS has enabled vehicle manufacturers to obtain the highest possible ratings in safety evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this study, vehicle CAE side impact models were used to evaluate three side impact crash test conditions (IIHS side impact, NHTSA LINCAP and FMVSS 214 side pole) and the IIHS roof strength test condition and to identify several key components affecting the side impact test performance. HyperStudy® optimization software and LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element software were utilized for shape and gauge optimization. Simplified bending crush simulation models were developed and a cross-section optimization was performed for bending crush performance. The optimized cross-sections were then applied to rocker reinforcement, B-pillar reinforcement, front seat cross-member, roof rail and door-beams to reduce the…
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Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis of Material Thermal Degradation Models

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Chrysler Engineering-Joshua Kamrad
Chrysler Group LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0955
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Time-temperature analysis methods are usually applied to predict the useful life of automotive components. Components life is affected by exposure to heat during vehicle service life. The extent of reduction in component life, which may be caused by material thermal degradation, depends on the component temperature and the time duration at that temperature. The rate of material thermal degradation of automotive components varies widely depending on material thermal stability, vehicle duty cycle, and the thermal environment that the component is exposed to. Thermodynamic properties such as the activation energy of each material are used to determine the rate of thermal degradation [1,2]. In this approach, material thermal degradation models are used to predict component life during the service life of a vehicle. As the rate of thermal degradation increases with increasing material temperature, the useful life of a component will be reduced as the material temperature increases. Therefore, it is desired to keep the rate of thermal degradation low enough so that a certain level of component performance can be maintained at the end of…
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A Bayesian Inference based Model Interpolation and Extrapolation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Co.-Zhenfei Zhan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang, Lei Shi
Univ. of Michigan-Zhimin Xi
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0223
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Model validation is a process to assess the validity and predictive capabilities of a computer model by comparing simulation results with test data for its intended use of the model. One of the key difficulties for model validation is to evaluate the quality of a computer model at different test configurations in design space, and interpolate or extrapolate the evaluation results to untested new design configurations. In this paper, an integrated model interpolation and extrapolation framework based on Bayesian inference and Response Surface Models (RSM) is proposed to validate the designs both within and outside of the original design space. Bayesian inference is first applied to quantify the distributions' hyper-parameters of the bias between test and CAE data in the validation domain. Then, the hyper-parameters are extrapolated from the design configurations to untested new design. They are then followed by the prediction interval of responses at the new design points. A vehicle design of front impact example is used to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
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Development of an Enhanced Accelerated Weathering Test Cycle for Automotive Coatings

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Honda R&D Americas Inc.-Todd Fitz
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1173
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Laboratory accelerated weathering test methods, such as SAE J2527 and JIS D 0205, are used to predict long term durability in the development and approval of automotive coatings. However, recent studies have shown that these methods are deficient with respect to spectral match to sunlight, simulation of water, and temperature profile. These deficiencies can limit the confidence of the laboratory accelerated test, and as a result the user needs to rely more heavily on long term natural exposure results. To increase the confidence of laboratory accelerated weathering testing, a new xenon arc light source filter and test protocol were investigated. Through a combination of natural weathering studies and prototype method testing, an improved accelerated weathering test cycle has been developed. The key characteristics of the improved method include the application of a new light source filter for spectral match to sunlight in the UV spectrum and an optimized water spray cycle that can create realistic moisture related coating damage. This new method has enabled improved laboratory accelerated weathering test confidence while reducing the total accelerated…
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