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A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Vellore Institute of Technology, India-Nilesh Satonkar, Venkatachalam Gopalan
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0010
Published 2019-05-29 by SAE International in United States
Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
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Mixture Distributions in Autonomous Decision-Making for Industry 4.0

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland University, USA-Christopher Slon, Vijitashwa Pandey, Sam Kassoumeh
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0011
Published 2019-05-29 by SAE International in United States
Industry 4.0 is expected to revolutionize product development and, in particular, manufacturing systems. Cyber-physical production systems and digital twins of the product and process already provide the means to predict possible future states of the final product, given the current production parameters. With the advent of further data integration coupled with the need for autonomous decision-making, methods are needed to make decisions in real time and in an environment of uncertainty in both the possible outcomes and in the stakeholders’ preferences over them. This article proposes a method of autonomous decision-making in data-intensive environments, such as a cyber-physical assembly system. Theoretical results in group decision-making and utility maximization using mixture distributions are presented. This allows us to perform calculations on expected utility accurately and efficiently through closed-form expressions, which are also provided. The practical value of the method is illustrated with a door assembly example and compared to traditional random assembly methods and results.
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Industrial Framework for Identification and Verification of Hot Spots in Automotive Composite Structures

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Leif E. Asp
Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-Henrik Molker, Renaud Gutkin
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0009
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
In this article, a framework for efficient strength analysis of large and complex automotive composite structures is presented. This article focuses on processes and methods that are compliant with common practice in the automotive industry. The proposed framework uses efficient shell models for identification of hot spots, automated remodelling and analysis of found hot spots with high-fidelity models and finally an automated way of post-processing the detailed models. The process is developed to allow verification of a large number of load cases in large models and still consider all potential failure modes. The process is focused on laminated composite primary structures. This article highlights the challenges and tools for setting up this framework.
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Monotonic and Cyclic Creep of Cast Materials for Exhaust Manifolds

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden-Christian Öberg, Stefan Jonsson
Scania, Sweden-Baohua Zhu
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0012
Published 2019-05-13 by SAE International in United States
Cast materials are creep tested between 600 and 900°C using three methods: (i) tensile testing at different strain rates, (ii) stress relaxation during thermal cycling and (iii) traditional creep tests at constant load. Comparisons are made between fast and slow methods and between monotonic and cyclic deformation modes. The tested materials, SiMo51, SiMo1000, Ni-resist D5S and HK30, are used for exhaust manifolds in heavy-duty diesel engines. The fast and cheap methods, (i) and (ii), were used on all materials, while the tedious and costly method, (iii), was used on SiMo51 only. The creep rates from monotonic tensile tests and stress relaxations during thermal cycling agree well. There is no difference between monotonic and cyclic creep rates, and cyclic rates are practically unchanged with the number of thermal cycles. No or small differences in creep rates are observed when comparing tension and compression, although three of the materials include large graphite nodules. At 700°C, a Norton plot for SiMo51 shows coinciding results for tensile test and compressive stress relaxations, whereas the minimum creep rates from constant…
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A Model Study for Prediction of Performance of Automotive Interior Coatings: Effect of Cross-Link Density and Film Thickness on Resistance to Solvents and Chemicals

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Eastern Michigan University, USA-Vijay Mannari, Raviteja Kommineni
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0007
Published 2019-03-27 by SAE International in United States
Automotive interior coatings for flexible and rigid substrates represent an important segment within automotive coating space. These coatings are used to protect plastic substrates from mechanical and chemical damage, in addition to providing colour and design aesthetics. These coatings are expected to resist aggressive chemicals, fluids, and stains while maintaining their long-term physical appearance and mechanical integrity. Designing such coatings, therefore, poses significant challenges to the formulators in effectively balancing these properties. Among many factors affecting coating properties, the cross-link density (XLD) and solubility parameter (δ) of coatings are the most predominant factors. In general, the higher the XLD (i.e., more number of cross-links between the polymeric chain per unit volume of coating network), the lower the free volume between polymer chains and the lower the permeability to the diffusion of solvents and chemicals at a given film thickness. Coatings with optimum XLD are desirable as XLD also affects various mechanical properties like flexibility, hardness, and toughness. Coating formulators often use time-consuming trial-and-error studies to determine formulation with optimum XLD. In this study, a range…
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Erosion Wear Response of Linz-Donawitz Slag Coatings: Parametric Appraisal and Prediction Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Neural Computation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

ICFAI Foundation for Higher Education, India-Pravat Ranjan Pati
KIIT Deemed to be University, India-Mantra Prasad Satpathy
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0008
Published 2019-03-14 by SAE International in United States
Slag, generated from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter, is one of the recyclable wastes in an integrated steel plant. The present work aims at utilization of waste LD slag to develop surface coatings by plasma spraying technique. This study reveals that LD slag can be gainfully used as a cost-effective wear-resistant coating material. A prediction model based on an artificial neural network (ANN) is also proposed to predict the erosion performance of these coatings. The 2.27% error shows that ANN successfully predicts the erosion wear rate of the coatings both within and beyond the experimental domain. In addition to it, a novel optimization algorithm called imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is used to obtain minimum erosion wear rate of 12.12 mg/kg. This algorithm is inspired by the imperialistic competition and has several advantages over other revolutionary algorithms like its simplicity, less computational time, and accuracy in predicting the results. A 2.39% error is noticed while comparing the erosion wear rate result of ICA with the experimental outcome.
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