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Experiment and Simulation Study on Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Composite Component under Dynamic Three-Point Bending Loading

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics-Qingping Sun
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0096
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In the current work, unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber composite hatsection component with two different layups are studied under dynamic three-point bending loading. The experiments are performed at various impact velocities, and the effects of impactor velocity and layup on acceleration histories are compared. A macro model is established with LS-DYNA for a more detailed study. The simulation results show that the delamination plays an important role during dynamic three-point bending test. Based on the analysis with a high-speed camera, the sidewall of hatsection shows significant buckling rather than failure. Without considering the delamination, the current material model cannot capture the post-failure phenomenon correctly. The sidewall delamination is modeled by assumption of larger failure strain together with slim parameters, and the simulation results of different impact velocities and layups match the experimental results reasonably well.
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A Comparative Study of Two ASTM Shear Test Standards for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Chongqing University-Zhangxing Chen, Yimin Shao
Ford Motor Company-Hongyi Xu, Katherine Avery, Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0098
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) material is a promising material for mass-production lightweight vehicle components. However, the experimental characterization of SMC material property is a challenging task and needs to be further investigated. There now exist two ASTM standards (ASTM D7078/D7078M and ASTM D5379/D5379M) for characterizing the shear properties of composite materials. However, it is still not clear which standard is more suitable for SMC material characterization. In this work, a comparative study is conducted by performing two independent Digital Image Correlation (DIC) shear tests following the two standards, respectively. The results show that ASTM D5379/D5379M is not appropriate for testing SMC materials. Moreover, the failure mode of these samples indicates that the failure is caused by the additional moment raised by the improper design of the fixture. Tests following ASTM D7078/D7078M can generate sound results in most cases, and therefore the ASTM D7078/D7078M seems to be a more suitable standard for characterizing chopped carbon fiber SMC material.
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Modeling Forming Limit in Low Stress Triaxiality and Predicting Stretching Failure in Draw Simulation by an Improved Ductile Failure Criterion

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

General Motors LLC-ZiQiang Sheng
University of Michigan-Dearborn-Pankaj Mallick
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0801
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
A ductile failure criterion (DFC), which defines the stretching failure at localized necking (LN) and treats the critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness, was proposed in a previous study. In this study, the DFC is revisited to extend the model to the low stress triaxiality domain and demonstrates on modeling forming limit curve (FLC) of TRIP 690. Then, the model is used to predict stretching failure in a finite element method (FEM) simulation on a TRIP 690 steel rectangular cup draw process at room temperature. Comparison shows that the results from this criterion match quite well with experimental observations.
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Characterization of Metal Foil in Anisotropic Fracture Behavior with Dynamic Tests

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Changan Automobile Co. Ltd.-Huili YU
Tsinghua University-Zhexin Pan, Puying Zhao, Xinqi Wei, Yong Xia
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0108
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Metal foil is a widely used material in the automobile industry, which not only is the honeycomb barrier material but is also used as current collectors in Li-ion batteries. Plenty of studies proved that the mechanical property of the metal foil is quite different from that of the metal sheet because of the size effect on microscopic scale, as the metal foil shows a larger fracture stress and a lower ductility than the metal sheet. Meanwhile, the fracture behavior and accurate constitutive model of the metal foil with the consideration of the strain rate effect are widely concerned in further studies of battery safety and the honeycomb. This article conducted experiments on 8011H18 aluminum foil, aiming to explore the quasi-static and dynamic tension testing method and the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the very thin foil. Two metal foil dog-bone specimens and three types of notched specimens were tested with a strain rate ranging from 2 × 10−4/s to 40/s and various stress states. It was shown that the metal foil has an obvious anisotropic behavior…
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An Exploration of Jute-Polyester Composite for Vehicle Head Impact Safety Countermeasures

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Indian Institute of Science-Karthika Shivakumar, Anindya Deb
Wayne State University-Clifford C. Chou
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0844
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Natural fiber-reinforced composites are currently gaining increasing attention as potential substitutes to pervasive synthetic fiber-reinforced composites, particularly glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP). The advantages of the former category of composites include (a) being conducive to occupational health and safety during fabrication of parts as well as handling as compared to GFRP, (b) economy especially when compared to carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRC), (c) biodegradability of fibers, and (d) aesthetic appeal. Jute fibers are especially relevant in this context as jute fabric has a consistent supply base with reliable mechanical properties. Recent studies have shown that components such as tubes and plates made of jute-polyester (JP) composites can have competitive performance under impact loading when compared with similar GFRP-based structures. Drawing from this potential, the current study utilizes a combination of testing and CAE (computer-aided engineering) to demonstrate that trims made of jute composite can be effective countermeasures for vehicle upper interior head impact safety protection. To this end, a methodical approach is adopted according to which results obtained from tensile, compressive, and three-point bending tests for specimens…
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Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets of Different Thicknesses

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
University of Michigan-Jwo Pan, Wei-Ning Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1239
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets of different thicknesses are investigated based on the experimental results and a structural stress fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens of different thicknesses with FDS joints with clearance hole were made and tested under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs show the failure modes of the FDS joints with clearance hole in lap-shear specimens of different thicknesses under quasi-static loading conditions. Under quasi-static loading conditions, as the thickness increases, the FDS joint failed from the penetration of the screw head into the upper sheet to the failure of the screw between the two sheets. Optical micrographs also show the failure modes of the FDS joints with clearance hole in lap-shear specimens of different thicknesses under cyclic loading conditions. The failure modes under cyclic loading conditions are different from those under quasi-static loading conditions. Under cyclic loading conditions, the FDS joints mostly failed near the screws in the lower sheets of thinner specimens and also failed under…
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The Unique Dynamic and Structural Solution of a Finite Element Representation of Full Vehicle Based on the Integrated Implicit/Explicit Approach

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

FCA EMEA-Efthimio Duni, Alberto Signorini, Vincenzo Puleo, Alessandro SIAS, Simone Piccardi, Serena Mennillo
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1214
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This article describes a numerical methodology, based on Finite Element approach, able to simulate, with a unique solution, the dynamic and structural response of a full vehicle running on fatigue reference roads. The current durability process is a multidisciplinary one based on a combination of three different phases: load definition, stress definition, and fatigue life prediction. For Long-Time Histories events, the second phase of this process is necessarily based on a Linear assumption using a Static or Dynamic approach. However, in durability events, some situations can lead the material to work in the plastic range, thus putting on the top the strength aspect of the performances and making these phases not independent and sequential, but strongly interdependent. The goal of the methodology reported in this article is to merge, in a unique numerical simulation, the load and stress definition phases. To this purpose, the solution of a full vehicle model of a commercial van, with a complete Finite Element representation of the body structure, running on fatigue roads, is investigated. This work represents an evolution…
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Assessment of Cyclic Corrosion Test Protocols for Magnesium Substrates

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Meridian Lightweight Technologies-J.P. Weiler, G. Wang, R. Berkmortel
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0103
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Historically, accelerated cyclic corrosion test protocols utilized by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have been developed based on a great knowledge and abundant vehicle field data of primarily steel-containing vehicle components. Laboratory-accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with repeated cycles of wet, dry, humid, and/or corrosive media application have been developed both separately and in partnerships, such as in the case of SAE J2334, to simulate a severe corrosive field environment for evaluation of cosmetic corrosion performance of painted steel. With the interest in lightweight metals such as aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys in automotive applications, the validity and confidence of these accelerated test protocols with vehicle field data of lightweight metals is valuable to further increasing the usage of these metals.Over the last several years, Meridian has completed a long-term assessment of the corrosion performance of as-cast and powder-coated die-cast magnesium in an underbody vehicular environment. The corrosion performance of similarly prepared samples exposed to accelerated laboratory test protocols was also completed. The work presented here reviews the specifications of several of these OEM accelerated laboratory cyclic…
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Reliability and Cost Trade-Off Analysis of a Microgrid

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland University-Zissimos Mourelatos
US Army RDECOM-David Gorsich
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0619
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Optimizing the trade-off between reliability and cost of operating a microgrid, including vehicles as both loads and sources, can be a challenge. Optimal energy management is crucial to develop strategies to improve the efficiency and reliability of microgrids, as well as new communication networks to support optimal and reliable operation. Prior approaches modeled the grid using MATLAB, but did not include the detailed physics of loads and sources, and therefore missed the transient effects that are present in real-time operation of a microgrid. This article discusses the implementation of a physics-based detailed microgrid model including a diesel generator, wind turbine, photovoltaic array, and utility. All elements are modeled as sources in Simulink. Various loads are also implemented including an asynchronous motor. We show how a central control algorithm optimizes the microgrid by trying to maximize reliability while reducing operational cost. The performance of the proposed central control algorithm will be validated through simulation results for different scenarios and the results will be compared.
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Crushing Behavior of Vehicle Battery Pouch Cell and Module: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Feng Zhu, Jianyin Lei, Xianping Du, Patrick Currier, Audrey Gbaguidi, David Sypeck
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1446
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are considered as one of the solutions for electric vehicles (EV) in the automotive industry due to their lightweight and high energy density. Their mechanical performance is of great importance for EV crashworthiness design. In this study, quasi-static and dynamic indentation tests were conducted on commercially available vehicle battery pouch cells to investigate their structural integrity. Three indenters, namely, a 19.1 mm (3/4 in.) diameter flat end (FE), a 25.4 mm (1 in.) diameter hemispherical (LH), and a 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) diameter hemispherical (SH), were used to investigate the punch force-deflection responses of the cells. Loading velocity varied in the range of 0.06 mm/s to 3 m/s to test the strain rate effect. Simplified closed-form analysis solutions were developed to predict the pouch cell force-deflection response by considering the effect of compression, tension, and shear of the battery component materials. Good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and test data. Besides the cell level tests, an additional indentation test using a rigid wedge was carried out on a multicell battery…
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