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SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing
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ERRATUM: Classification of Contact Forces in Human-Robot Collaborative Manufacturing Environments

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Nottingham-Ran Zhao, Adrien Drouot, Svetan Ratchev
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0001.1
Published 2018-06-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Investigation of Residual Stresses in Cold-Formed Steel Sections with Nonlinear Strain-Hardened Material Model

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham-Padmanaban Ramasamy
Ashok Leyland Technical Centre-K. Chinnaraj, Mangalaramanan Sathya Prasad
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0022
Published 2018-09-17 by SAE International in United States
In this article, forming residual stresses in cold-formed small-radius corner sections are analytically predicted with the consideration of the shift in the neutral axis and the nonlinear strain-hardened material model. The predicted forming stress results in the transverse direction show a trend of increased compressive residual stress in the outer surface and reduced tensile residual stress in the inner surface, as the corner radius-to-thickness ratio increases in small-radius bends. In the longitudinal direction, there is no significant change in the residual stress values observed in the inner and outer surfaces with respect to an increase in corner radius-to-thickness ratios. But a considerable decrease in compressive residual stress and an increase in tensile stress values are observed in the midsection areas, with an increase in the corner radius-to-thickness ratio. It is observed that the analytical peak compressive residual stress values are always higher than the experimental results. Also, the through-thickness residual stress from the numerical model is in close agreement with the analytical results. The magnitude of the maximum compressive stress in the inner half thickness…
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Automated Guided Vehicles for Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Review

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology-Surajkumar Goraksha Kumbhar, Rachana B. Thombare, Amitkumar B. Salunkhe
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0024
Published 2018-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS) are the prominent one in modern material handling systems used in small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) due to their exciting features and benefits. This article pinpoints the need of AGVS in SMEs by describing the material handling selection in SMEs and enlightening recent technological developments and approaches of the AGVS. Additionally, it summarizes the analytical and simulation-based tools utilized in design problems of AGVS along with the influence of material handling management and key hurdles of AGVS. The current study provides a limelight towards making smart automated guided vehicles (AGVs) with the simplified and proper routing system and favorable materials and more importantly reducing the cost and increasing the flexibility.
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Structural Optimization of a Pickup Frame Combining Thickness, Shape and Feature Parameters for Lightweighting

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

AK Steel Corporation-Jianyong Liang, Jonathan Powers, Scott Stevens
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0018
Published 2018-08-08 by SAE International in United States
The methods for improving the torsion stiffness of a pickup chassis frame were discussed, including increasing the part thickness on frame, enlarging the cross section of rails, and adding bulkhead feature inside the rails. Sizing optimization was conducted to get the optimal thickness configuration for frame parts and meet the siffness requirement. The cross section of frame rails was parameterized and shape optimization was conduted to get the optimal rail cross sections for stiffness improvement. Additional bulkheads were added to the frame rails, and sizing optimization conducted to find the most effective bulkheads to add and their optimal gauge. A material efficiency ratio μ is used to evaluate the efficiency of a design change with respect to torsion stiffness. Among those torsion improvement methods, adding bulkhead feature gives the highest material efficiency ratio, but the stiffness improvement is very limited. Enlarging the rail sections and increasing the part thickness can improve the torsion to over 9% while the material efficiency ratio is relatively low. Simultaneous structural optimization was conducted combining above two and all torsion…
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Utilization of Man Power, Increment in Productivity by Using Lean Management in Kitting Area of Engine Manufacturing Facility - A Case Study

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

College of Engineering Pune-Harshwardhan Rajeshkumar Vairagde
General Motors India Private Limited-Naresh Hans
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0020
Published 2018-08-08 by SAE International in United States
The project of lean management is implemented in General Motors India Private Limited, Pune, India plant. The aim of the project is to improve manpower utilization by removing seven types of wastes using lean management system in kitting process. Lean manufacturing or management is the soul of Just-In-Time philosophy and is not new in Automobile manufacture sector where it born. Kitting area is analogs to the modern supermarket where required components, parts, consumables, subassemblies are kept in bins. These bins are placed in racks so that choosing right part at right time can be achieved easily. Video recording, in-person observation, feedback from online operators and other departments such as maintenance, control, supply chain etc. are taken. It is observed that the work content performed by current strength of operators can be performed by less number of operators. After executing this project, it was possible to reduce one operator and increase manpower utilization. Continuous improvement is a part of lean management the organization is striving for it.
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Improving Hole Expansion Ratio by Parameter Adjustment in Abrasive Water Jet Operations for DP800

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover-Bernd-Arno Behrens, Deniz Yilkiran, Kai Wölki, Sven Hübner
The Ohio State University-David Diaz-Infante, Taylan Altan
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0023
Published 2018-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The use of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cutting technology can improve the edge stretchability in sheet metal forming. The advances in technology have allowed significant increases in working speeds and pressures, reducing the AWJ operation cost. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of selected AWJ cutting parameters on the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) for a DP800 (Dual-Phase) Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) with s0 = 1.2 mm by using a fractional factorial design of experiments for the Hole Expansion Tests (HET). Additionally, the surface roughness and residual stresses were measured on the holes looking for a possible relation between them and the measured HER. A deep drawing quality steel DC06 with s0 = 1.0 mm was used for reference. The fracture occurrence was captured by high-speed cameras and by Acoustic Emissions (AE) in order to compare both methods. Results indicated that using, regardless of the material, a small standoff distance, high water pressure, and slow traverse speed and cutting the sample underwater will delay the fracture in a hole expansion operation.…
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Toward Material Efficient Vehicles: Ecodesign Recommendations Based on Metal Sustainability Assessments

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Fundación CIRCE-Abel Ortego, Alicia Valero
SEAT S.A.-Marta Iglesias
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0021
Published 2018-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Current End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) recycling processes are mainly based on mechanical separation techniques. These methods are designed to recycle those metals with the highest contribution in the vehicle weight such as steel, aluminum, and copper. However, a conventional vehicle uses around 50 different types of metals, some of them considered critical by the European Commission. The lack of specific recycling processes makes that these metals become downcycled in steel or aluminum or, in the worst case, end in landfills. With the aim to define several ecodesign recommendations from a raw material point of view, it is proposed to apply a thermodynamic methodology based on exergy analysis. This methodology uses an indicator called thermodynamic rarity to assess metal sustainability. It takes into account the quality of mineral commodities used in a vehicle as a function of their relative abundance in Nature and the energy intensity required to extract and process them. This method is proposed as a tool to identify the most critical components in a vehicle so as to define specific ecodesign recommendations for them.…
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On the Multi-Parameter Experimental Investigation of Curing Cycle for Glass Fabric/Epoxy Laminated Composites

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Technical University of Athens-Georgios V. Seretis, Georgios N. Kouzilos, Dimitrios E. Manolakos, Christopher G. Provatidis
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0019
Published 2018-08-08 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a multi-parameter analysis, using Taguchi method for design of experiments, has been conducted to investigate the optimum curing conditions for E-glass fabric/epoxy laminated composites. The independent variables in the L25 Taguchi orthogonal array were heating rate a, curing temperature TC and curing time tC, including five levels each. Tensile and 3-point bending tests were performed for each experiment number (run number) of the Taguchi L25. In this study, the significant factors for both tensile and flexural performance were temperature and time at 95% confidence level. Specifically, the tensile performance was affected almost equally by both curing temperature and time (32.71% and 35.89%, respectively). The flexural performance was mostly affected by curing temperature (44.02%) and secondarily by curing time (31.52%). The use of Poisson regression method, combined with backward elimination, has been introduced to increase the accuracy of the multiple regression model. In fact, the accuracy (R2) of the Poisson Regression model was greater than 97%, when the respective one of the commonly used Multiple Regression models tested was about 65%-70%. Specifically, using…
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Data Manipulation Approach and Parameters Interrelationships of the High-Pressure Torsion for AA6061-15%SiCp Composite

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Mansoura University-El-sayed Abd El Rassoul
PAAET-Ayman Mohamed Alaskari, Samy Oraby
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0017
Published 2018-05-29 by SAE International in United States
On contrast to the qualitative approach used in the majority of researches, an evaluation quantitative approach is introduced not only to depict the plain individual effect of the influence of the high-pressure torsion (HPT) processing conditions on the microstructural and Hv-values of the ultra-hard nanostructured AA6061-15%SiCp composite but also to detect its possible parameters functional interaction and nonlinear trends involved. Experimental data were used to establish many adequate and significant empirical models to detect and to evaluate the mutual functional interrelationships between the Hv-values of the composite, each of HPT processing pressure, and number of revolutions. For each group of interrelated parameters, the preferred selected developed model has been exploited to generate the relevant contours and response surface graphs. On one hand, it is shown that HPT processing can be improved through applying the best effective methods to produce materials with a nanostructure, while maintaining higher durability; in addition to a superior hardness. On the other hand, the development of functional outcome in mathematical forms becomes an essential requirement in nowadays digital database era.
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