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SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing
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ERRATUM: Classification of Contact Forces in Human-Robot Collaborative Manufacturing Environments

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Nottingham-Ran Zhao, Adrien Drouot, Svetan Ratchev
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0001.1
Published 2018-06-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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ERRATA: Aerodynamic CFD Based Optimization of Police Car Using Bezier Curves

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Durham Univ.-Philip Gaskell PhD
Education & Technology Solutions Inc.-Ali Reza Taherkhani
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9450.01
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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ERRATUM: Life Cycle Analysis of 1995-2014 U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet: The Environmental Implications of Vehicle Material Composition Changes

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Argonne National Laboratory-Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1273.01
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Investigation of Residual Stresses in Cold-Formed Steel Sections with Nonlinear Strain-Hardened Material Model

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham-Padmanaban Ramasamy
Ashok Leyland Technical Centre-K. Chinnaraj, Mangalaramanan Sathya Prasad
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0022
Published 2018-09-17 by SAE International in United States
In this article, forming residual stresses in cold-formed small-radius corner sections are analytically predicted with the consideration of the shift in the neutral axis and the nonlinear strain-hardened material model. The predicted forming stress results in the transverse direction show a trend of increased compressive residual stress in the outer surface and reduced tensile residual stress in the inner surface, as the corner radius-to-thickness ratio increases in small-radius bends. In the longitudinal direction, there is no significant change in the residual stress values observed in the inner and outer surfaces with respect to an increase in corner radius-to-thickness ratios. But a considerable decrease in compressive residual stress and an increase in tensile stress values are observed in the midsection areas, with an increase in the corner radius-to-thickness ratio. It is observed that the analytical peak compressive residual stress values are always higher than the experimental results. Also, the through-thickness residual stress from the numerical model is in close agreement with the analytical results. The magnitude of the maximum compressive stress in the inner half thickness…
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Automated Guided Vehicles for Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Review

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology-Surajkumar Goraksha Kumbhar, Rachana B. Thombare, Amitkumar B. Salunkhe
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0024
Published 2018-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS) are the prominent one in modern material handling systems used in small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) due to their exciting features and benefits. This article pinpoints the need of AGVS in SMEs by describing the material handling selection in SMEs and enlightening recent technological developments and approaches of the AGVS. Additionally, it summarizes the analytical and simulation-based tools utilized in design problems of AGVS along with the influence of material handling management and key hurdles of AGVS. The current study provides a limelight towards making smart automated guided vehicles (AGVs) with the simplified and proper routing system and favorable materials and more importantly reducing the cost and increasing the flexibility.
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Structural Optimization of a Pickup Frame Combining Thickness, Shape and Feature Parameters for Lightweighting

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

AK Steel Corporation-Jianyong Liang, Jonathan Powers, Scott Stevens
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0018
Published 2018-08-08 by SAE International in United States
The methods for improving the torsion stiffness of a pickup chassis frame were discussed, including increasing the part thickness on frame, enlarging the cross section of rails, and adding bulkhead feature inside the rails. Sizing optimization was conducted to get the optimal thickness configuration for frame parts and meet the siffness requirement. The cross section of frame rails was parameterized and shape optimization was conduted to get the optimal rail cross sections for stiffness improvement. Additional bulkheads were added to the frame rails, and sizing optimization conducted to find the most effective bulkheads to add and their optimal gauge. A material efficiency ratio μ is used to evaluate the efficiency of a design change with respect to torsion stiffness. Among those torsion improvement methods, adding bulkhead feature gives the highest material efficiency ratio, but the stiffness improvement is very limited. Enlarging the rail sections and increasing the part thickness can improve the torsion to over 9% while the material efficiency ratio is relatively low. Simultaneous structural optimization was conducted combining above two and all torsion…
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Utilization of Man Power, Increment in Productivity by Using Lean Management in Kitting Area of Engine Manufacturing Facility - A Case Study

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

College of Engineering Pune-Harshwardhan Rajeshkumar Vairagde
General Motors India Private Limited-Naresh Hans
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0020
Published 2018-08-08 by SAE International in United States
The project of lean management is implemented in General Motors India Private Limited, Pune, India plant. The aim of the project is to improve manpower utilization by removing seven types of wastes using lean management system in kitting process. Lean manufacturing or management is the soul of Just-In-Time philosophy and is not new in Automobile manufacture sector where it born. Kitting area is analogs to the modern supermarket where required components, parts, consumables, subassemblies are kept in bins. These bins are placed in racks so that choosing right part at right time can be achieved easily. Video recording, in-person observation, feedback from online operators and other departments such as maintenance, control, supply chain etc. are taken. It is observed that the work content performed by current strength of operators can be performed by less number of operators. After executing this project, it was possible to reduce one operator and increase manpower utilization. Continuous improvement is a part of lean management the organization is striving for it.
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Influence of the Friction Coefficient in Self-Pierce Riveting Simulations: A Statistical Analysis

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-E.I. Ilieva
The University of Alabama-J.F.C. Moraes, J.B. Jordon
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0013
Published 2018-05-08 by SAE International in United States
In this work, optimal modeling parameters for self-pierce riveting (SPR) were determined using a factorial design of experiments (DOE). In particular, we show statistically how each of the calibrating parameters used in modeling the SPR process through nonlinear finite element modeling can drastically change the geometry of the joint. The results of this study indicate that the degree of interlock, which is a key feature of a sound joint, is largely influenced by the friction between the die and bottom sheet as well as the friction between the rivet and top sheet. Furthermore, this numerical study also helped elucidate the role of friction in SPR and sheds light on how coatings with diverse friction coefficients can affect material deformation and ultimately structural integrity of the joint.
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Response of Austempering Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Property in Different Zones of As-Welded Ductile Iron (DI)

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Jadavpur University-Tapan Sarkar, Tapan Kumar Pal
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0016
Published 2018-05-08 by SAE International in United States
Sound ductile iron (DI) welded joints were performed using developed coated electrode and optimized welding parameters including post weld heat treatment (PWHT). Weldments consisting of weld metal, partially melted zone (PMZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal were austenitized at 900 °C for 2 hour and austempered at 300 °C and 350 °C for three different holding time (1.5 hour, 2 hour and 2.5 hour). In as-weld condition, microstructures of weld metal and PMZ show ledeburitic carbide and alloyed pearlite, but differ with their amount. Whereas microstructure of HAZ shows pearlite with some ledeburitic carbide and base metal shows only ferrite. However, in spite of the significant variation in microstructures at different zones of weldment in as-weld condition, all the zones show similar microstructure of base metal such as bainitic ferrite along with some retained austenite after austempering heat treatment, indicating the response of heat treatment from different zones like base metal. However, the microstructure of each zone of weldment varies in shape, size and amount with changing the austempering temperature and holding time.…
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Modeling the Effect of Foam Density and Strain Rate on the Compressive Response of Polyurethane Foams

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry-Mikelis Kirpluks, Ugis Cabulis
Riga Technical University-Guntis Japins, Kaspars Kalnins
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0014
Published 2018-05-08 by SAE International in United States
Due to the high deformability and energy dissipation capacity of polymer foams in compression, they are used in automotive applications to mitigate mechanical impacts. The mechanical response of the foams is strongly affected by their density. Phenomenological relations have been proposed to describe the effect of foam density on their stress-strain response in compression at a fixed loading rate and the effect of loading rate at a fixed foam density. In the present work, these empirical approaches are combined allowing for the dependence of loading rate effect in compression on foam density. The minimum experimental data set for calibration of the proposed model consists of compression test results at two different loading rates of foams with two different densities. Rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams with apparent density in the range of ca. 100 to 300 kg/m3 have been produced and tested in compression up to a ca. 80% engineering strain at low (0.00167 to 0.5 s−1) and intermediate (~102 s−1) strain rates. The model parameters were evaluated from test results of the largest and smallest-density foams…
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