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Re-Design for Automotive Window Seal Considering High Speed Fluid-Structure Interaction

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

China Ship Development and Design Center-Peijian Lin
Tongji University-Wenfeng Zhu, Chunyu LI, Yao Zhong
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9452
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Automotive window seal has great influence on NVH (Noise-Vibration-Harshness) performance. The aerodynamic effect on ride comfort has attracted increasing research interest recently. A new method for quantifying and transferring aerodynamics-induced load on window seal re-design is proposed. Firstly, by SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model, external turbulent flow field of full scale automotive is established by solving three-dimensional, steady and uncompressible Navier-Stokes equation. With re-exploited mapping algorithm, the aerodynamics pressure on overall auto-body is retrieved and transferred to local glass area to be external loads for seals, thus taking into account the aerodynamics effect of high speed fluid-structure interaction. This method is successfully applied on automotive front window seal design. The re-design header seal decreases the maximum displacements of leeward and windward glass with 9.3% and 34.21%, respectively. The improvement of fitting stability shows the effectiveness this seal re-design considering high-speed fluid-structure interaction.
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Aerodynamic CFD Based Optimization of Police Car Using Bezier Curves

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Durham University-Philip Gaskell PhD
Imperial College-Rob Hewson PhD
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9450
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the optimization of the aerodynamic design of a police car, BMW 5-series which is popular police force across the UK. A Bezier curve fitting approach is proposed as a tool to improve the existing design of the warning light cluster in order to reduce drag. A formal optimization technique based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and moving least squares (MLS) is used to determine the control points for the approximated curve to cover the light-bar and streamline the shape of the roof. The results clearly show that improving the aerodynamic design of the roofs will offer an important opportunity for reducing the fuel consumption and emissions for police vehicles. The optimized police car has 30% less drag than the non-optimized counter-part.
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Closed-Form Structural Stress Solutions for Fatigue Life Estimations of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
University of Michigan-Lunyu Zhang, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0470
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Closed-form structural stress solutions are investigated for fatigue life estimations of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole based on three-dimensional finite element analyses. The closed-form structural stress solutions for rigid inclusions under counter bending, central bending, in-plane shear and in-plane tension are first presented. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of the lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) are then presented. The results of the finite element analyses indicate that the closed-form structural stress solutions are quite accurate at the critical locations near the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) for fatigue life predictions. The fatigue life predictions based on the closed-form and computational structural stress solutions are in agreement with the experimental results for FDS joints in lap-shear specimens without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) under high-cycle fatigue loading conditions.
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Optimization of Contact Profiles using Super-Ellipse

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

MCE-5 Development-Matthieu Duchemin, Cezar Tugui, Vincent Collee
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1349
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In many rolling or sliding contact mechanisms, like roller bearings, journal bearings, gearings or any contact between two semi-infinite bodies, concentrated stress occurs at the edges of the contact. This stress, due to what is called edge effect, is known to be very fatigue damaging. To avoid this concentrated stress in common roller bearings, the rolling surface of the roller and/or of the track is crowned. The crowning shapes usually include a straight line and one or several circular arcs. Even if such crowning profiles are efficient in avoiding edge effects, they are far from being optimized in terms of contact pressure distribution. In recent years, crowning shapes based on a logarithmic function developed by Lundberg have been improved and optimized for the purpose of industrialization. However, the resulting profiles are fairly complex and have only been developed for roller bearings and not for other types of rolling or sliding contacts. This paper presents a new profile type based on a super-ellipse equation (ellipse generalized to the order n). With this profile, it is quite…
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High Strain Rate Mechanical Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Using Digital Image Correlations

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Katherine Avery
National Institute of Standards and Technology-Louise A. Powell, William E. Luecke, Matthias Merzkirch, Tim Foecke
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0230
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites to structural components in lightweight automotive structures necessitates an assessment to evaluate that their crashworthiness dynamic response provides similar or higher levels of safety compared to conventional metallic structures. In order to develop, integrate and implement predictive computational models for CFRP composites that link the materials design, molding process and final performance requirements to enable optimal design and manufacturing vehicle systems for this study, the dynamic mechanical response of unidirectional (UD) and 2x2 twill weave CRFP composites was characterized at deformation rates applicable to crashworthiness performance. Non-standardized specimen geometries were tested on a standard uniaxial frame and an intermediate-to-high speed dynamic testing frame, equipped with high speed cameras for 3D digital image correlation (DIC). Specimen cross-sections, according to each fiber orientation tested, were consistent across strain rates to ensure results were comparable. Tensile strength and modulus were experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.0001 to 200 s-1). DIC was used to estimate strain profiles on composites surfaces, and the modulus was calculated from…
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Fatigue Analysis of Swept Friction Stir Clinch Joints between Aluminum and Steel Sheets

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Chung Cheng University-Pai-Chen Lin, WeiNing Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0478
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue analysis of swept friction stir clinch (Swept-FSC) joints between 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and S45C steel (Fe) sheets was conducted through experimental approaches. Before fatigue tests, a parametric study for the probe geometry of FSC tools was conducted in order to eliminate the hook structure inside the joint and improve the mechanical performance of the joint. Then a series of quasi-static and fatigue tests for Al/Fe Swept-FSC joints in lap-shear (LP) and cross-tension (CT) specimens were conducted. The fatigue data were recorded. The fatigue behavior of Al/Fe Swept-FSC joints in LP and CT specimens were examined through optical and scanning electron microscopes. Experimental results indicated that LP specimens have two failure modes, while CT specimens have only one failure mode. The dominant fatigue crack of each failure mode was identified.
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Retained Austenite Stability and Impact Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel at Reduced Temperatures

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

General Motors Global Research and Development-Jeff Wang
General Motors LLC-C. Matthew Enloe, Jason Coryell
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1707
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Retained austenite stability to both mechanically induced transformation and athermal transformation is of great importance to the fabrication and in-vehicle performance of automotive advanced high strength steels. Selected cold-rolled advanced high strength steels containing retained austenite with minimum tensile strengths of 980 MPa and 1180 MPa were pre-strained to pre-determined levels under uniaxial tension in the rolling direction and subsequently cooled to temperatures as low as 77 K. Room temperature uniaxial tensile results of pre-strained and cooled steels indicate that retained austenite is stable to athermal transformation to martensite at all tested temperatures and pre-strain levels. To evaluate the combined effects of temperature and pre-strain on impact behavior, stacked Charpy impact testing was conducted on the same 980 MPa minimum tensile strength steel following similar pre-straining in uniaxial tension. A reduction in absorbed energy was observed with decreasing temperature and increasing pre-strain, indicating that thermal effects on plasticity, not athermal transformation to martensite, predominantly account for the observed reductions in impact energy at reduced temperatures.
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Damping properties and NVH Modal Analysis Results of Carbon Fiber Composite Vehicle Components

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Yuksel Gur, David Wagner
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0500
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
With the continuing challenges of future fuel economy targets carbon fiber composite materials are one facet of a lightweighting strategy to enable reduced fuel consumption. In general, use of lightweight materials such as carbon fiber composites in vehicle design generates vehicle NVH performance degradation. To address this potential issue at the design phase, there is a need to develop correlated CAE models for carbon fiber vehicle parts to evaluate the NVH impact of carbon fiber composite material use in vehicle design.To develop correlated CAE models for lightweight vehicle design with the use of carbon fiber composite vehicle body parts, an experimental study was conducted to determine the material and NVH characteristics of the carbon fiber composite materials.In this paper, the damping properties and NVH modal analysis results for structural carbon fiber thermoset composite panels and body parts (B-pillar upper insert and B-pillar lower insert) is presented. NVH modal analysis results include modes (natural frequencies), mode shapes, and modal damping. Damping properties of the carbon fiber composite parts are measured with a laser vibrometer up to…
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Stable and Accurate LS-DYNA Simulations with Foam Material Models: Optimization of Finite Element Model Parameters

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

General Motors LLC-Vesna Savic
General Motors Technical Center India-Karthik Ramaswamy, Biswajit Tripathy
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1338
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Cellular foams have found a predominant application in automotive industry for efficient energy absorption so as to meet stringent and continuously improving vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection criteria. The recent inclusion of pedestrian protection regulations mandate the use of foams of different densities for impact energy absorption at identified impact locations; this has paved the way for significant advancements in foam molding techniques such as dual density and tri-density molding. With increased emphasis on light-weighting, solutions involving the use of polymeric or metallic foams as fillers in hollow structures - foam encapsulated metal structures - are being explored. Another major automotive application of foams is in the seat comfort area, which again involves foams of intricate shapes and sizes. In addition, a few recently developed foams are anisotropic, adding on to the existing complexities. Complexities associated with controlled/ uncontrolled spatial variation in density and the geometry of molded parts and use of foams in sandwich composites offer several challenges for the CAE community in modeling the foam components.As a first step to capture these complexities,…
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Development of GFRTP Crush Box with Consideration of Use Environment and Effect of Fiber Orientation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Tomoya Yabu, Shigeto Yasuhara, Masakazu Kashiwagi
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0498
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Regulation of automotive CO2 emissions is becoming increasingly stringent throughout the world in response to global warming. For automakers, this means a focus not only on increasing the fuel economy of powertrains, but also on reducing automotive driving resistance. High expectations are held for thermoplastic fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) for the realization of automotive weight savings while also offering high levels of productivity and recyclability.Thermoplastic FRP crush boxes display a higher level of energy absorption performance than metal (steel, aluminum, etc.) crush boxes. This will contribute to automotive weight savings and improved package design. In the case of automotive front bumper beam systems, it is necessary to realize stable load characteristics irrespective of the use environment. It is therefore necessary to consider the effects of temperature and thermoplastic resin degradation. The molding process for discontinuous fiber-reinforced FRP produces disordering of the fiber orientation. Research concerning the performance of thermoplastic FRP crush boxes produced findings that assisted in the design of a thermoplastic FRP crush box that would maintain a stable load characteristic in all use environments.It…
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