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Multiscale Modeling Approach for Short Fiber Reinforced Plastic Couplings

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Eaton Corp.-Mark Pratley
Eaton Technologies Pvt, Ltd.-Atish Gawale, Abhijit Kulkarni
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-26-0243
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The demand for injection molded reinforced plastic products used in the automotive industry is growing due to the capability of the material for volume production, high strength to weight ratio, and its flexibility of geometry design. On the other hand, the application of fiber filled plastic composites has been challenging and subject of research during past decades due to the inability to accurately predict the mechanical strength and stiffness behavior owing to its anisotropic characteristics. This paper discusses a numerical simulation based technique using multiscale (2 scale Micro-Macro) modeling approach for short fiber reinforced plastic composites. Fiber orientation tensors and knit lines are predicted in microscale analysis using Autodesk Inc.’s Moldflow® software, and structural analysis is performed considering the homogenized structure in macroscale analysis using ANSYS® software tool. This approach accurately captures the stiffness and stress behavior of reinforced plastic materials. Further, a case study is discussed with application of developed approach on reinforced plastic supercharger couplings which are used to connect two coaxial shafts for torque transfer. It is observed that critical locations in…
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Development of Advanced Ultra-Low PGM DOC for BS VI DOC+CDPF+SCR System

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

CDTi-Zahra Nazarpoor, Steve Golden, Ru-Fen Liu
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-26-0142
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
Stricter regulatory standards are continuously adopted worldwide to control heavy duty emissions, and at the same time, fuel economy requirements have significantly lowered exhaust temperatures. The net result is a significant increase in Precious Group Metal (PGM) usage with current Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) technology. Therefore, the design and development of advanced DOC with ultra-low PGM to achieve highly beneficial emission performance improvement is necessary. The advanced DOC is synergized PGM (SPGM) with Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO). The presence of MMO in SPGM is responsible for NO oxidation to NO2 which is critical for the passive regeneration of the downstream filter and SCR function.This paper outlines the development of MMO for application in modern DOCs and addresses some specific challenges underlying this application. Lab and flow reactor data demonstrates MMO by itself owns great oxidation properties with high surface area available for NO oxidation reaction. In addition, SPGM DOC with reduced PGM levels indicated thermal resistance and sensitivity to type of hydrocarbon in gas stream. This paper summaries the results of engine dyno and on-road…
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Elevated Temperature Modal Response and Delamination Detection in Carbon-Epoxy Beams

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Mississippi State University-Bradley Michael, Rani Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9082
Published 2016-12-21 by SAE International in United States
Polymer matrix composites are increasingly adopted in aerospace and automotive industries due to their many attributes, such as their high strength to weight ratio, tailorability, and high fatigue and durability performance. However, these materials also have complex damage and failure mechanisms, such as delaminations, which can severely degrade their strength and fatigue performance. To effectively and safely use composite materials in primary structures, it is essential to assess composite damage response for development of accurate predictive models. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the response of damaged and undamaged carbon epoxy beams subjected to vibration loadings at elevated temperatures. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique is used to analyze the beams’ modal response. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams. Using empirical mode decomposition to separate superposed modes of signals, several intrinsic mode functions can be determined which can reveal more information about complex nonlinear signals than traditional data analysis techniques such as the Fourier Transform. The composite beams are fabricated from an out-of-autoclave uniaxial carbon/epoxy prepreg (CYCOMTM-5320-1/T650). Delamination damage…
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Development of Heat Resistant Titanium Alloy for Exhaust Valves Applicable for Motorcycles

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Shinji Kasatori, Yuji Marui
Kobe Steel, Ltd.-Hideto Oyama, Kosuke Ono
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-32-0023
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
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A Study of Pad Properties vs. Friction, Wear and Brake Squeal: Processing/Porosity Effects

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Compact International Co. Ltd.-Kritsana Kaewlob, Nipon Tiempan, Rungrod Samankitesakul
Compact International Co., Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1915
Published 2016-09-18 by SAE International in United States
As some brake engineers believe that brake squeal can be related to pad hardness, friction coefficient or compressibility while others disagree, a study has been undertaken to develop further insights. Two commercial formulas, one low-copper NAO and the other copper-free NAO, were made into disc pads of varying porosity without an underlayer and they were checked for specific gravity, porosity, hardness (HRS and HRR), natural frequencies, compressibility, friction, wear and squeal. With increasing porosity, the hardness and natural frequencies continue to decrease. The compressibility definitely does not increase, but rather slightly decrease or stays the same. The coefficient of friction decreases for the low-copper along with pad and disc wear reduction, and increases for the copper-free along with pad wear increase with no change in disc wear. No obvious correlation emerges between brake squeal and pad hardness, friction coefficient or compressibility. After the pads were compressed under 30, 100 and 160 bars, the hardness of the pad surface is found to increase, suggesting permanent compaction under the pressures while the interior of the pad, 5…
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Toxicity of the Airborne Brake Wear Debris

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Nanotechnology Centre, VSB-TUO-Pavlina Peikertova, Miroslav Vaculik, Jana Kukutschova, Karla Kucova
Norwegian Institute for Air Research-Maria Dusinska
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1914
Published 2016-09-18 by SAE International in United States
Particulate air pollution from road traffic currently represents significant environmental and health issue. Attention is also paid to the “non-exhaust pollution sources,” which includes brake wear debris. During each brake application, the airborne and nonairborne particles are emitted into the environment due to wear. High temperatures and pressures on the friction surfaces initiate chemical and morphological changes of the initial components of brake pads and rotating counterparts. Understanding of impact of matter released from brakes on health is vital. Numerous studies clearly demonstrated that particulate matter caused potential adverse effects related to cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, stimulation of proinflammatory factors, and mutagenicity on the cellular level. This paper compiles our main results in the field of genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and aquatic toxicity of airborne brake wear particles. The brake wear particles were generated using an automotive brake dynamometer. In vitro human peripheral blood cell model was used for the genotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Assessment of aquatic toxicity was performed on the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. Obtained results point to potency of toxicity related to the generated airborne brake…
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ERRATUM:The Effects of Temperature, Shear Stress, and Deposit Thickness on EGR Cooler Fouling Removal Mechanism - Part 2

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Hyunki Sul
Ford & Associates-Chih-Kuang Kuan
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0186.01
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
ERRATUM: In the article Reference 24 should read as follows: 24. Han, T., Booth, A., Song, S., Styles, D., and Hoard, J., “Review and A Conceptual Model of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cooler Fouling Deposition and Removal Mechanism” Proceedings of the Int. Conf. on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning, 2015”
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Application of Rapid Heat and Cool Molding to High Strength Outer Parts without Painting Treatment

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

FUJISEIKO Co., Ltd.-Mitsuo Kaneko
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Daisuke Sugio, Shinpei Okazaki
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-32-0024
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
Glass fiber reinforced plastic of polyamide is applied as one of the materials used for the high strength exterior parts of a motorcycle, such as a rear grab rail or a carrier, to which both strength and good exterior appearance are required. However, Glass Fiber reinforced Polypropylene (PPGF), which is relatively inexpensive material, has a property that the contained glass fibers are prone to be exposed at the surface and, therefore, the requirements for good appearance are hardly met by using PPGF. In this study, Heat and Cool molding method (H&C molding) was employed to realize a cost reduction by using PPGF yet without applying painting process, and the established method was applied to mass production while fulfilling the requirements for a good exterior appearance. In H&C molding, the metal molds are heated up by steam and cooled down by water after molding. This process works for making superior surface appearances and the appearance quality is determined by the temperature control of the molds. H&C molding has been generally applied to the parts with a…
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Bio-Soluble Chemical Composition for Complementary Mineral Fibres: An Enhanced Tribologic Effect and Its Influence on Disc Wear

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Lapinus Fibres-Diego Adolfo Santamaria Razo, Fernao Persoon
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1909
Published 2016-09-18 by SAE International in United States
Environmental and financial factors are leading developments in the automotive industry and friction materials are no exception. Different organizations around the globe are increasing their attention on fine dust emissions. End users are more and more focused on comfort and cost due to global economic conditions.Two of these factors are directly related to each other: comfort and fine dust. They are the result of tribologic mechanisms resulting from pad and disc wear. These mechanisms linked to friction performance are the consequence of the interaction between friction material surface and disc surface. This interaction forms the third body layer and extensive studies have been carried out on this.This paper describes a detailed characterization of a new group of developed fibres. This new family of fibres has been specially engineered to offer an enhanced friction material surface reinforcement due to the specially designed aspect ratio. It has also been designed to maintain the most stable third body layer development to keep boosting friction level. Disc wear can be reduced thanks to its special chemical composition. The paper…
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