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Multi-Physics Simulation of Ultra-Lightweight Carbon Nanotube Speakers

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Michigan Technological University-Mahsa Asgarisabet, Andrew Barnard
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1816
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film. The surface temperature variation is then used to simulate the pressure distribution in the open medium. To validate the model, the results of simulation are compared to the experimental data and traditional lumped-parameter models. From the…
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Re-Design for Automotive Window Seal Considering High Speed Fluid-Structure Interaction

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

China Ship Development and Design Center-Peijian Lin
Tongji University-Wenfeng Zhu, Chunyu LI, Yao Zhong
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9452
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Automotive window seal has great influence on NVH (Noise-Vibration-Harshness) performance. The aerodynamic effect on ride comfort has attracted increasing research interest recently. A new method for quantifying and transferring aerodynamics-induced load on window seal re-design is proposed. Firstly, by SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model, external turbulent flow field of full scale automotive is established by solving three-dimensional, steady and uncompressible Navier-Stokes equation. With re-exploited mapping algorithm, the aerodynamics pressure on overall auto-body is retrieved and transferred to local glass area to be external loads for seals, thus taking into account the aerodynamics effect of high speed fluid-structure interaction. This method is successfully applied on automotive front window seal design. The re-design header seal decreases the maximum displacements of leeward and windward glass with 9.3% and 34.21%, respectively. The improvement of fitting stability shows the effectiveness this seal re-design considering high-speed fluid-structure interaction.
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Aerodynamic CFD Based Optimization of Police Car Using Bezier Curves

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Durham University-Philip Gaskell PhD
Imperial College-Rob Hewson PhD
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9450
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the optimization of the aerodynamic design of a police car, BMW 5-series which is popular police force across the UK. A Bezier curve fitting approach is proposed as a tool to improve the existing design of the warning light cluster in order to reduce drag. A formal optimization technique based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and moving least squares (MLS) is used to determine the control points for the approximated curve to cover the light-bar and streamline the shape of the roof. The results clearly show that improving the aerodynamic design of the roofs will offer an important opportunity for reducing the fuel consumption and emissions for police vehicles. The optimized police car has 30% less drag than the non-optimized counter-part.
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Closed-Form Structural Stress Solutions for Fatigue Life Estimations of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
University of Michigan-Lunyu Zhang, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0470
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Closed-form structural stress solutions are investigated for fatigue life estimations of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole based on three-dimensional finite element analyses. The closed-form structural stress solutions for rigid inclusions under counter bending, central bending, in-plane shear and in-plane tension are first presented. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of the lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) are then presented. The results of the finite element analyses indicate that the closed-form structural stress solutions are quite accurate at the critical locations near the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) for fatigue life predictions. The fatigue life predictions based on the closed-form and computational structural stress solutions are in agreement with the experimental results for FDS joints in lap-shear specimens without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) under high-cycle fatigue loading conditions.
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Optimization of Contact Profiles using Super-Ellipse

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

MCE-5 Development-Matthieu Duchemin, Cezar Tugui, Vincent Collee
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1349
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In many rolling or sliding contact mechanisms, like roller bearings, journal bearings, gearings or any contact between two semi-infinite bodies, concentrated stress occurs at the edges of the contact. This stress, due to what is called edge effect, is known to be very fatigue damaging. To avoid this concentrated stress in common roller bearings, the rolling surface of the roller and/or of the track is crowned. The crowning shapes usually include a straight line and one or several circular arcs. Even if such crowning profiles are efficient in avoiding edge effects, they are far from being optimized in terms of contact pressure distribution. In recent years, crowning shapes based on a logarithmic function developed by Lundberg have been improved and optimized for the purpose of industrialization. However, the resulting profiles are fairly complex and have only been developed for roller bearings and not for other types of rolling or sliding contacts. This paper presents a new profile type based on a super-ellipse equation (ellipse generalized to the order n). With this profile, it is quite…
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Life Cycle Analysis of 1995-2014 U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet: The Environmental Implications of Vehicle Material Composition Changes

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Argonne National Laboratory-Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1273
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy. To retrospectively investigate the impact of this potential burden shifting from vehicle operation to vehicle production due to material substitution, historical weights, material compositions, fuel economies, and other characteristics of the U.S. light-duty fleet for 1995-2014 are presented and analyzed in this study. The GHG emissions from vehicle production,…
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High Strain Rate Mechanical Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Using Digital Image Correlations

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Katherine Avery
National Institute of Standards and Technology-Louise A. Powell, William E. Luecke, Matthias Merzkirch, Tim Foecke
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0230
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites to structural components in lightweight automotive structures necessitates an assessment to evaluate that their crashworthiness dynamic response provides similar or higher levels of safety compared to conventional metallic structures. In order to develop, integrate and implement predictive computational models for CFRP composites that link the materials design, molding process and final performance requirements to enable optimal design and manufacturing vehicle systems for this study, the dynamic mechanical response of unidirectional (UD) and 2x2 twill weave CRFP composites was characterized at deformation rates applicable to crashworthiness performance. Non-standardized specimen geometries were tested on a standard uniaxial frame and an intermediate-to-high speed dynamic testing frame, equipped with high speed cameras for 3D digital image correlation (DIC). Specimen cross-sections, according to each fiber orientation tested, were consistent across strain rates to ensure results were comparable. Tensile strength and modulus were experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.0001 to 200 s-1). DIC was used to estimate strain profiles on composites surfaces, and the modulus was calculated from…
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Fatigue Analysis of Swept Friction Stir Clinch Joints between Aluminum and Steel Sheets

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Chung Cheng University-Pai-Chen Lin, WeiNing Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0478
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue analysis of swept friction stir clinch (Swept-FSC) joints between 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and S45C steel (Fe) sheets was conducted through experimental approaches. Before fatigue tests, a parametric study for the probe geometry of FSC tools was conducted in order to eliminate the hook structure inside the joint and improve the mechanical performance of the joint. Then a series of quasi-static and fatigue tests for Al/Fe Swept-FSC joints in lap-shear (LP) and cross-tension (CT) specimens were conducted. The fatigue data were recorded. The fatigue behavior of Al/Fe Swept-FSC joints in LP and CT specimens were examined through optical and scanning electron microscopes. Experimental results indicated that LP specimens have two failure modes, while CT specimens have only one failure mode. The dominant fatigue crack of each failure mode was identified.
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Interpolated Selective Area Mechanical Roughening for Thermally Sprayed Engine Bores

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-David A. Stephenson
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0452
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Thermally sprayed engine bores require surface preparation prior to coating to ensure adequate adhesion. Mechanical roughening methods produce repeatable surfaces with high adhesion strength and are attractive for high volume production. The currently available mechanical roughening methods are finish boring based processes which require diameter-specific tooling and significant clearance at the bottom of the bore for tool overtravel and retraction. This paper describes a new mechanical roughening method based on circular interpolation. This method uses two tools: a peripheral milling tool, which cuts a series of concentric grooves in the bore wall through interpolation, and a second rotary tool which deforms the grooves to produce an undercut. This method produces equivalent or higher bond strength than current surface preparation methods, and does not require diameter-specific tooling or bottom clearance for tool retraction. In contrast to boring-based methods, it also permits roughening and coating only a portion of the bore (e. g. the ring travel portion), reducing steel wire and energy consumption and enabling the elimination of a bimetallic cut on the joint face of the…
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Using an Assembly Sequencing Application to React to a Production Constraint: a Case Study

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0242
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this work we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries. When an inevitable delay of receipt of inbound shipment of a particular part is expected, the plant must somehow react to alleviate that…
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