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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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In-Situ Measurement and Numerical Solution of Main Journal Bearing Lubrication in Actual Engine Environment

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Kenji Matsumoto, Hironori Harada, Yuki Ono
Tokyo City University-Yuji Mihara
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0894
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
A simple method is frequently used to calculate a reciprocating engine’s bearing load from the measured cylinder pressure. However, it has become apparent that engine downsizing and weight reduction cannot be achieved easily if an engine is designed based on the simple method. Because of this, an actual load on a bearing was measured, and the measured load values were compared with a bearing load distribution calculated from cylinder pressure. As a result, it was found that some of actual loads were about half of the calculated ones at certain crank angles. The connecting rod’s elastic deformation was focused on as a factor behind such differences, and the rod’s deformation due to the engine’s explosion load was studied. As a result, it was found that the rod part of the engine’s connecting rod was bent by 0.2 mm and became doglegged. Additional investigation regarding these findings would allow further engine downsizing.In this paper, the authors mainly report that an actual load on a bearing during the engine’s combustion could not be determined by simplified calculation…
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Introduction of Fuel Economy Engine Oil Performance Target with New SAE Viscosity Grade

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Linden Consulting, LLC-James Linden
Toyota Motor Corporation-Masami Ishikawa, Kazuo Yamamori, Satoshi Hirano
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0896
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy improvement has been one of the most important challenges for the automotive industry, and the oil and additive industries. The automotive, oil, and additive industries including related organizations such as SAE, ASTM, and testing laboratories have made significant efforts to develop not only engine oil technologies but also engine oil standards over decades. The API S category and ILSAC engine oil standard are well known and widely used engine oil specifications [1] [2].The development of an engine oil standard has important roles to ensure the quality of engine oils in the market and encourage industries to improve the engine oil performance periodically. However, the progress of technology advancement can go faster than the revision of engine oil standard. An introduction of new viscosity grades, SAE 0W-16 and 5W-16 is one good example. The 16 grade was added into the SAE J300 standard that defines viscosity grades for engine oils in April 2013 [3]. The addition of SAE 0W-16 and 5W-16 has opened up an opportunity to improve engine oil fuel economy performance further.…
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A Study on High-Accuracy Test Method for Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles Considering the Transient Characteristics of Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Norifumi Mizushima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0908
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In the conventional approval test method of fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel vehicles currently in use in Japan, the fuel consumption under the transient test cycle is calculated by integrating the instantaneous fuel consumption rate referred from a look-up table of fuel consumptions measured under the steady state conditions of the engine. Therefore, the transient engine performance is not considered in this conventional method. In this study, a highly accurate test method for fuel consumption in which the map-based fuel consumption rate is corrected using the transient characteristics of individual engines was developed. The method and its applicability for a heavy-duty diesel engine that complied with the Japanese 2009 emission regulation were validated.The proposed test method comprises four processes: (i) obtaining experimental data for deriving the formula of transient correction factor (TCF); (ii) performing simulation for obtaining calculated data for deriving TCF formula; (iii) deriving this formula; and (iv) performing simulation of the fuel consumption by correcting the instantaneous fuel consumption by using TCF formula in addition to the conventional simulation method. In process (iii),…
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Characteristics of Lubricants on Auto-ignition under Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Petro China Lanzhou Lubricating Oil R&D-Chuang Fan, Xiaohong Xu, Jing Li
Tongji Univ.-Sunyu Tong, Xiao Yu He, Jun Deng, Liguang Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0889
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Downsizing gasoline direct injection engine with turbo boost technology is the main trend for gasoline engine. However, with engine downsizing and ever increasing of power output, a new abnormal phenomenon, known as pre-ignition or super knock, occurs in turbocharged engines. Pre-ignition will cause very high in-cylinder pressure and high oscillations. In some circumstances, one cycle of severe pre-ignition may damage the piston or spark plug, which has a severe influence on engine performance and service life. So pre-ignition has raised lots of attention in both industry and academic society. More and more studies reveal that the auto-ignition of lubricants is the potential source for pre-ignition. The auto-ignition characteristics of different lubricants are studied. This paper focuses on the ignition delay of different lubricants in Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere (CATA) combustion system. In this study, many tests were conducted in the CATA combustion system .The result of tests shows that with the increase of the temperature, the ignition delay of the oil decrease obviously. And the results of tests show that with the increase of the kinematic…
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Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Operated on Madhuca Indica biodiesel using Multi-Objective Optimization by Applying Taguchi Grey Relational Analysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

KJs Trinity College of Engg and Research-Shubhangi S. Nigade
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1278
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper’s analysis approach combines the orthogonal array design of experiments with grey relational analysis for optimization CI engine performance using blend of Madhuca Indica biodiesel as a fuel. Grey relational theory is adopted to determine the best input parameters that give lower emission and higher performance of CI engine. Five design parameters namely; compression ratio, injection pressure, injection nozzle geometry (no. of holes on nozzle of injector), additive (AA-93 TM) and fuel fraction were selected, and four levels for each factor. To reduce an experimental effort the experiments have been performed by employing Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array for various engine performance and emission related responses. Injection nozzle geometry was found to most influencing factors. The optimal combination so obtained was further confirmed through experimentation was suitable for optimizing the performance and emission parameters of diesel engine. The optimal combination of the input parameters in CI engine operated on Madhuca indica biodiesel blend is: Compression ratio (CR) 18, fuel injection pressure (FIP) 310 bar, injection nozzle geometry (ING) 3H, fuel fraction (FF) 15% and without…
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Estimation of Oil Supply Time during Engine Start-Up at Very Low Temperatures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

TEMA-Bogdan R. Kucinschi, Teng-Hua Shieh
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0893
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The adequate lubrication of engine parts is critical for the engine durability, and insufficient oil supply to various friction areas might result in catastrophic engine failure.However, when the environment temperatures are very low, the presence of oil between friction surfaces may be significantly delayed, especially during the engine start-up after a longer period of time when the vehicle was not driven. The capability of the oil pump to transport oil within the engine depends on the low-temperature rheological properties of oil, as well as the geometry of the passages.There are testing methods that estimate the ability of an oil to provide lubrication at low temperatures by measuring the yield stress and viscosity in controlled conditions (ASTM D4684, D5293, D5133), but they provide limited data generally used as a guideline for the selection of an appropriate oil.This paper presents a methodology to computationally estimate the time needed for the low-temperature lubricant to reach the lubrication circuit, using measured rheological properties of the engine oil. For this study, the oil properties were determined using a hybrid rheometer.…
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Investigation of Engine Oil Base Stock Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition in a Turbocharged Direct Injection SI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

ExxonMobil Research & Engineering-Arthur Andrews, Raymond Burns, Richard Dougherty, Douglas Deckman, Mrugesh Patel
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9071
Published 2016-03-14 by SAE International in United States
Low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) is a type of engine knocking specific to turbocharged direct injection engines. There are numerous factors that affect the amount of LSPI produced by an engine. Some of these factors are related to engine hardware; others are specific to the fuel and engine oil. In this paper we focus on the effect of the engine oil base stock on LSPI. We conducted experiments in a stationary engine operating at conditions chosen to accentuate pre-ignition. Our results indicate that base stock viscosity has a statistically significant effect on the amount of low speed pre-ignition. Directionally, we found that engine oils formulated with higher viscosity base stocks produced more pre-ignition events. We measured the effect of base stock quality (defined by either Viscosity Index or concentration of aromatic species) to be small and statistically insignificant in our experimental data. In the course of our experimentation we detected a drift in the LSPI results from our test engines, and instituted an engine-hours correction on our results to compensate. We recommend that other researchers be…
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A Comparison of the Properties and Cold Flow Performance of ‘Summer’ and ‘Winter’ GTL Diesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sasol Energy-Celeste Wilken, Stefan de Goede, Carl Viljoen
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9074
Published 2016-05-18 by SAE International in United States
Gas to Liquids (GTL) diesel has been produced commercially for several years. GTL diesel is known for its excellent properties, including zero aromatics, near zero sulphur and a high cetane number. Most of the GTL diesel produced by commercial plants is utilised as a blend component, especially in blends up to 20%. In these applications, the cold flow properties are potentially less critical, as the cold flow properties of the blend will mostly be determined by the petroleum-derived component. In certain markets, however, it is possible that GTL diesel can be used as a neat diesel, therefore requiring good cold flow properties.An advantage of GTL technology is that the cold flow properties of GTL diesel can be tailored to meet the climatic requirements of a specific geographical area. In the current study, GTL diesel samples with cold flow properties ranging from ‘summer type’ to ‘winter type’ and varying intermediate cold flow qualities were evaluated. In line with expectations, it was shown that increasing the degree of isomerisation will improve the cold flow properties of the…
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Understanding the Octane Appetite of Modern Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions-Arjun Prakash, Roger Cracknell, Vinod Natarajan, David Doyle, Aaron Jones, Young Suk Jo
Southwest Research Institute-Matthew Hinojosa, Peter Lobato
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0834
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Octane appetite of modern engines has changed as engine designs have evolved to meet performance, emissions, fuel economy and other demands. The octane appetite of seven modern vehicles was studied in accordance with the octane index equation OI=RON-KS, where K is an operating condition specific constant and S is the fuel sensitivity (RONMON). Engines with a displacement of 2.0L and below and different combinations of boosting, fuel injection, and compression ratios were tested using a decorrelated RONMON matrix of eight fuels. Power and acceleration performance were used to determine the K values for corresponding operating points. Previous studies have shown that vehicles manufactured up to 20 years ago mostly exhibited negative K values and the fuels with higher RON and higher sensitivity tended to perform better. On investigating this trend for 2012 MY vehicles, it was found that K values were negative and higher in magnitude in several cases in comparison with results from prior research in this area. The octane response correlated well with the spark advance strategy employed by their respective engine management…
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Review: Fuel Volatility Standards and Spark-Ignition Vehicle Driveability

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

EcoEngineering, Inc.-Janet Yanowitz
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Robert L. McCormick
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9072
Published 2016-03-14 by SAE International in United States
Spark-ignition engine fuel standards have been put in place to ensure acceptable hot and cold weather driveability (HWD and CWD). Vehicle manufacturers and fuel suppliers have developed systems that meet our driveability requirements so effectively that drivers overwhelmingly find that their vehicles reliably start up and operate smoothly and consistently throughout the year. For HWD, fuels that are too volatile perform more poorly than those that are less volatile. Vapor lock is the apparent cause of poor HWD, but there is conflicting evidence in the literature as to where in the fuel system it occurs. Most studies have found a correlation between degraded driveability and higher dry vapor pressure equivalent or lower TV/L = 20, and less consistently with a minimum T50. For CWD, fuels with inadequate volatility can cause difficulty in starting and rough operation during engine warmup. The Driveability Index (DI)-a function of T10, T50, and T90-is well correlated with CWD in hydrocarbon fuels. For ethanol-containing fuels, a correction factor to the DI equation improves the correlation with CWD, although the best value…
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