Terms:
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
AND
9
AND
1
The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Disintegration Mechanisms of Intermittent Liquid Jets

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Royal Institute of Technology-Alexander Nygaard, Mireia Altimira, Lisa Prahl Wittberg, Laszlo Fuchs
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0851
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
It has been observed that intermittent injection leads to improved spray characteristics in terms of mixing and gas entrainment. Although some experimental work has been carried out in the past, the disintegration mechanisms that govern the breakup of intermittent jets remain unknown. In this paper we have carried out a systematic numerical analysis of the breakup of pulsated jets under different injection conditions. More specifically, the duty cycle (share of active injection during one cycle) is varied, while the total cycle time is kept constant. The advection of the liquid phase is handled through the Volume of Fluid approach and, in order to provide an accurate, yet computationally acceptable, resolution of the turbulent structures, the implicit Large Eddy Simulation has been adopted. The results show that the primary disintegration results from a combination of stretching, collision and aerodynamic interaction effects. Moreover, there exists a strong coupling between stretching and collision as stretching makes the pulse thinner prior to the contact between pulses. In this work, the purpose is to study the collision contribution to breakup…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation on Combustion, Performance and Emissions of Automotive Engine Fueled with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Punit Kumar Singh, A S Ramadhas, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0886
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
To tackle the problems associated with the volatility of crude oil prices and ever stringent emission norms, oil industries and automobiles manufacturers are experimenting with various alternative fuels to increase its percentage share in the energy mix and to reduce the vehicular emissions. Alcohols are preferred choice of alternative fuels for the gasoline engines as it does not require any major engine modification and new infrastructure for the fuel distribution network. Ethanol as sole fuel or blending component for gasoline for use in spark ignition engines has been investigated many decades. Currently, 10% ethanol is blended in motor gasoline in India and the ethanol concentration may be further increased in future. In order to study the effect of higher blends of ethanol (upto 20%) on engine in-cylinder combustion, performance and emission, investigations were carried out on a latest generation passenger car engine in a climatic controlled test cell. Engine combustion, performance and emissions were analyzed at full throttle condition at regular speed intervals. Higher octane number and oxygen in the ethanol blends improved the combustion…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Study of Reliability Evaluation of Main Bearings for Multicylinder Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Masashi Sadatomi, Hiroaki Ito
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0494
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, although experiment technologies on real engines and simulation technologies has been improved rapidly, the tribology contributing factors have not been quantitatively well evaluated to reveal critical lubrication failure mechanisms.In this study the oil film thickness of the main bearings in multicylinder diesel engines was measured, and the data was analyzed using response surface methodology, which is a statistical analysis methods used to quantitatively derive the factors affecting oil film thickness and the extent of their contribution. We found that the factor with the strongest effect on minimum oil film thickness is oil pressure. Lastly, as a verification test, bearing wear on the main bearings was compared under various oil pressure conditions. Clear differences in bearing wear were identified.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Compatibility of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Diesel Blends with Fuel System Polymers: A Hansen Solubility Analysis Approach

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Charles Daw
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0835
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of notable infrastructure elastomers and plastics with DME and its blends with diesel fuel were examined using solubility analysis. The elastomer materials were fluorocarbon, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene (SBR), neoprene, polyurethane and silicone. Plastic materials included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE), along with several nylon grades and thermosetting resins. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels.A Hansen solubility analysis was performed for each material with DME, diesel, and blends of both fuel components. The results for the elastomers indicate that DME and its blends with diesel fuel will offer improved compatibility with NBR and SBR materials. Silicone, neoprene and polyurethane show similar solubility potential for any combination of DME and diesel, so no degradation is expected with DME. In contrast, fluorocarbon can be expected to become increasingly incompatible with increased DME concentration. In general, the solubility…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Experimental and Modeling Study on Ignition Characteristics of 2, 5-Dihydrofuran

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Xi'an Jiaotong University-Xiangshan Fan, Xibin Wang, Kangkang Yang, Yaoting Li, Chuanzhou Wu, Ziqing Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1270
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The ignition delay times of 2, 5-Dihydrofuran (25DHF) were measured behind reflected shock waves at the pressures of 4, 10atm, temperatures of 1110-1650 K, for the lean (φ= 0.5) and stoichiometric (φ= 1.0) mixtures with fixed fuel concentration of 0.5%. The correlations of ignition delay times to initial parameters were fitted in an Arrhenius-like form for the two fuels by multiregression analysis. Simulations based on Liu model, Somers model and Tran model were presented and compared to experiment data. Subsequently, reaction pathway and sensitivity analysis were performed in low and high temperature to obtain insight into the ignition kinetic by using Liu model. Reaction path analysis shows that there are two main ways in the consumption of 25DHF and the main intermediates are C3H5Y, sC3H5 and propylene etc. Some reactions which involved the main intermediate products presented important effect on the whole ignition of 25DHF. The comparisons to furan and MTHF on ignition delay time data were also conducted. The ignition delay times of 25DHF were shorter than that of furan and the slopes of…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Lubrication Analysis of Floating Ring Bearings Considering Floating Ring Heat Transfer

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Tongji University-Jiaqi Li, Jimin Ni, Qiwei Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0485
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Turbochargers improve performance in internal combustion engines. Due to low production costs, TC assemblies are supported on floating ring bearings. In current lubrication analysis of floating ring bearing, inner and outer oil film are usually supposed to be adiabatic. The heat generated by frictional power is carried out by the lubricant flow. In reality, under real operating conditions, there existed heat transfer between the inner and outer film. In this paper, the lubrication performance of floating ring bearing when considering heat transfer between inner film and outer film is studied. The lubrication model of the floating ring is established and the heat transferred through the ring between the inner and outer film is calculated. The calculation results show that heat flow between the inner and outer film under different outer film eccentricity ratio and rotate ratio has a large difference. The rotate speed also has an obvious effect on the lubrication of the floating ring bearing. When heat transfer of the floating ring is considered, lubrication performance is changed obviously. There is a good agreement…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

On-Road and Dynamometer Evaluation of Vehicle Auxiliary Loads

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Laboratory-Kevin Stutenberg
Idaho National Laboratory-Richard Barney Carlson
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0901
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Laboratory and on-road vehicle evaluation is conducted on four vehicle models to evaluate and characterize the impacts to fuel economy of real-world auxiliary loads.The four vehicle models in this study include the Volkswagen Jetta TDI, Mazda 3 i-ELOOP, Chevrolet Cruze Diesel, and Honda Civic GX (CNG). Four vehicles of each model are included in this; sixteen vehicles in total. Evaluation was conducted using a chassis dynamometer over standard drive cycles as well as twelve months of on-road driving across a wide range of road and environmental conditions.The information gathered in the study serves as a baseline to quantify future improvements in auxiliary load reduction technology. The results from this study directly support automotive manufacturers in regards to potential “off-cycle” fuel economy credits as part of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations, in which credit is provided for advanced technologies in which reduction of energy consumption from vehicle auxiliary loads can be demonstrated.The observed on-road auxiliary load varied from 135 W to over 1200 W across a wide range of ambient conditions and utilization patterns.…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation into Mixed and Hydrodynamic Frictions of PEO Coatings and Cast Iron

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Univ. of Windsor-Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0491
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
A linerless aluminum (Al) engine block has potential to reduce the weight of an automotive engine and improve the fuel economy. However, the Al cylinder surface of an aluminum engine block is not usually strong enough to withstand the sliding wear against piston rings. A few surface processing technologies are used to protect the surface of cylinders. Among them, a thermal spraying coating, such as plasma transferred wire arc (PTWA) is already popular. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is also proposed for increasing the wear resistance of aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys and reducing the friction between the cylinder and piston. In this work, two different PEO coatings with a thickness of around 23 μm were prepared on an Al-Si alloy A356, and a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to study the tribological behavior of the coatings at oil lubricant conditions. A cast iron sample was also used to do similar tribological tests for comparison. The coefficient of friction (COF) vs surface roughness (Ra: 0.2 - 0.8 μm) and sliding speeds (up to 6.07 m/s) were…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Lubrication on Demand: A Novel Polymeric Bearing Coating with Oil-Filled Microcapsules

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

MAHLE Engine Systems UK Ltd.-Roger Gorges, David Latham, Ian Laing
Mahle Engine Components USA-Ronald Brock
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0493
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Modern High-Speed Diesel (HSD) engines place increasing demands on engine components. Specifically, for connecting rod bearings there is a requirement to endure increased peak cylinder pressures and the resulting loads transmitted through the connecting rods to the crankshaft. In addition to these high loads, the operating environment for bearings is becoming more aggressive. Reductions in oil film thickness combined with the move towards lower viscosity oils means that the seizure and wear resistance of the bearings play a crucial role in modern engine development. In order to attend to these demands, MAHLE has developed a novel high-performance polymer coating containing lubricant-filled microcapsules.The Microcapsules are designed to rupture during nascent scuff and high wear events and consequently release the contained lubricant ‘on demand’. This introduces additional lubrication when required to prevent seizure.A clear tendency for the novel polymer coating to provide improved recovery after scuffing events was measured, allowing for continuing safe operation of the bearings and thus reducing the seizure risk. Testing shows that microcapsules improved the recovery rate after seizure events to 66% whereas…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Oil Transport from Scraper Ring Step to Liner at Low Engine Speeds and Effect of Dimensions of Scraper Ring Step

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Tianshi Fang, Tian Tian
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0495
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In gasoline engines, a scraper ring with a step on the bottom outer edge is widely used as a second ring. However, there lacks a fundamental understanding on the effects of this feature and its dimensions on oil transport. Inspired by observations from visualization experiments, this work combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and theoretical analysis shows that oil can be trapped in the space bordered by a second ring step and the chamfer of a piston third land. The trapped oil can be released to a liner when the piston is approaching the top dead center (TDC). This additional oil on the liner becomes a potential source of oil consumption. Such oil transport has been observed at typically less than 1500rpm. Since road vehicles often operate in this speed range, the newly-observed oil trapping and release can be closely associated with oil consumption in gasoline engines. In this work, a comprehensive study on oil trapping and release will be demonstrated. Computational simulations indicated that oil trapping resulted from the balance between surface tension and inertia.…
Annotation ability available