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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Derived Cetane Number, Distillation and Ignition Delay Properties of Diesel and Jet Fuels Containing Blended Synthetic Paraffinic Mixtures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

DST Group-Renee Webster, David Evans
DST Group, RMIT University-Paul Rawson
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9076
Published 2016-10-24 by SAE International in United States
Aviation turbine fuel and diesel fuel were blended with synthetic paraffins produced via two pathways and the combustion properties measured. Both aviation and diesel fuel containing synthetics produced from the fermentation of sugars, had a linear response to blending with decreasing ignition delay times from 5.05 - 3.52 ms for F-34 and 3.84 - 3.52 ms for F-76. For the same fuels blended with synthetics produced from the fermentation of alcohols, ignition delay times were increased out to 18.66 ms. The derived cetane number of the blends followed an inversely similar trend. Additionally, simulated distillation using ASTM D2887 at high synthetic paraffinic kerosene blend ratios resulted in the recovery temperatures being incorrectly reported. In this case, higher recovery volumes were at lower temperatures than earlier recovery points i.e. T90< T50, for SIP-SPK.
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Characterization of Damaging Biodiesel Deposits and Biodiesel Samples by Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

OFG-Analytik GmbH-Herbert Feld, Nadine Oberender
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9078
Published 2016-10-24 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel contains a variety of compounds, depending on the production and the provenance of the fuel. During the production process and usage, some of these compounds can form deposits (nozzle tip deposits or internal diesel injector deposits: “IDID”), which may lead to severe problems, such as corrosion, filter blockage and other technical issues. To deal with these difficulties, it is essential to exactly determine the components of these deposits. Most analytical methods used before, require complex preparations and result in limited information of the deposit material. Using infrared microscopy (ATR-FTIR: Attenuated-Total-Reflection Fourier-Transform-Infrared-Spectroscopy) or mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS: Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry), a direct analysis of the original deposit material is possible.In order to analyze the chemical composition of the deposits, samples were taken from affected engine parts and filling stations and examined with a TOF-SIMS instrument and a common infrared microscope. Infrared investigations of the engine parts hint to the presence of carboxylic acid salts and mass spectra of the same samples indicate various organic compounds, partly based on polyisobutylene succinimides (“PIBSI”). In the spectra of plugged fuel…
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A Study of Effect of Biodiesel on Common-Rail Injection Nozzle

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Khon Kaen University-Teerawat Laonapakul
Rajamangala University of Technology Isan-Patamaporn Chaikool, Kemwat Intravised, Prapan Patsin
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9077
Published 2016-10-24 by SAE International in United States
Due to the need to reduce the use of fossil fuels, renewable fuels such as biodiesels are of interest. Biodiesels have different properties to pure diesel especially higher viscosity. This research studied the effect of using biodiesel on common-rail injection nozzles. Pure diesel and two biodiesel blends were supplied to the nozzles using a 1,800 bar injection pump with the same rotational speed of 2,200 rpm for 1,000 hours. The biodiesel blends were 5% palm oil based fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) biodiesel blended with 95% diesel (B5), and 10% palm oil based FAME biodiesel blended with 90% diesel (B10). Comparing with the petroleum-derived diesel (petrodiesel) fuel, the use of higher viscosity fuels such as B5 or B10 did not show the possibility to cause wearing around the injection nozzle holes. On the other hand, the results obtained by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) demonstrated that the contaminations were observed around the holes when the nozzle were tested with B5 and B10. Using the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer, we expect the contaminations to be…
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Scanning Electron Microscopic Visualization of Bridge Formation inside the Porous Channels of Diesel Particulate Filters

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Tokyo Institute of Technology-Katsunori Hanamura
Tokyo Instiute of Technology-Ryoko Sanui
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9079
Published 2016-10-24 by SAE International in United States
Time-lapse images of particulate matter (PM) deposition on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) at the PM-particle scale were obtained via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). This particle scale time-series visualization showed the detailed processes of PM accumulation inside the DPF. First, PM introduced into a micro-pore of the DPF wall was deposited onto the surface of SiC grains composing the DPF, where it formed dendritic structures. The dendrite structures were locally grown at the contracted flow area between the SiC grains by accumulation of PM, ultimately constructing a bridge and closing the porous channel. To investigate the dominant parameters governing bridge formation, the filtration efficiency by Brownian diffusion and by interception obtained using theoretical filtration efficiency analysis of a spherical collector model were compared with the visualization results. The initial deposition of PM on the SiC grains showed good agreement with theoretical observations, where Brownian diffusion played a principle role in PM trapping; however, once the bridge formation commenced, another model was required to explain the locally and intensively growing dendritic structure inside the porous channel…
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The Effect of Humidity on the Knock Behavior in a Medium BMEP Lean-Burn High-Speed Gas Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

DNV GL-Martijn van Essen, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Torsten Mundt
DNV GL, University of Groningen-Howard Levinsky
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-9075
Published 2016-10-24 by SAE International in United States
The effects of air humidity on the knock characteristics of fuels are investigated in a lean-burn, high-speed medium BMEP engine fueled with a CH4 + 4.7 mole% C3H8 gas mixture. Experiments are carried out with humidity ratios ranging from 4.3 to 11 g H2O/kg dry air. The measured pressure profiles at non-knocking conditions are compared with calculated pressure profiles using a model that predicts the time-dependent in-cylinder conditions (P, T) in the test engine (“combustion phasing”). This model was extended to include the effects of humidity. The results show that the extended model accurately computes the in-cylinder pressure history when varying the water fraction in air.Increasing the water vapor content in air decreases the peak pressure and temperature significantly, which increases the measured Knock Limited Spark Timing (KLST); at 4.3 g H2O/kg dry air the KLST is 19 °CA BTDC while at 11 g H2O/kg dry air the KLST is 21 °CA BTDC for the same fuel. Excellent agreement is observed between the calculated knock resistance (using the Propane Knock Index, PKI) and the measured…
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Low-viscosity Gear Oil Technology to Improve Wear at Tapered Roller Bearings in Differential Gear Unit

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

TonenGeneral Sekiyu K.K.-Takafumi Mori, Masanori Suemitsu, Nobuharu Umamori, Takehisa Sato, Satoshi Ogano
Toyota Motor Corporation-Kenji Ueno, Oji Kuno, Kotaro Hiraga, Kazuhiko Yuasa, Shinichiro Shibata, Shinichiro Ishikawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2204
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated. Because the latter could cause an antagonistic impact on the former, we focused on control of active sulfur content as well as the treat ratios to reduce wear at the tapered roller bearing while maintaining anti-seizure.…
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Engine Oil Additive Impacts on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Corporation-Kristin A. Fletcher, Lisa Dingwell, Kongsheng Yang, William Y. Lam, Jeremy P. Styer
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2277
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) is an undesirable combustion phenomenon that limits the fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance of modern turbocharged engines. Because of the potential to catastrophically damage an engine after only a single pre-ignition event, the ability to reduce LSPI frequency has grown in importance over the last several years. This is evident in the significant increase in industry publications. It became apparent that certain engine oil components impact the frequency of LSPI events when evaluated in engine tests, notably calcium detergent, molybdenum and phosphorus. However, a close examination of the impact of other formulation additives is lacking. A systematic evaluation of the impact of the detergent package, including single-metal and bimetal detergent systems, ashless and ash-containing additives has been undertaken using a GM 2.0L Ecotec engine installed on a conventional engine dynamometer test stand. Consistent with previous reports, the detergent system was found to have the largest impact on LSPI frequency. Furthermore, once a balanced detergent system was identified and its LSPI impact was minimized, the effect of other additives, ash-containing…
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Determination of Diesel Physical Properties at Injection Pressures and Temperatures via All-Atom Molecular Simulations

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell-Abhinav Verma, Roger Cracknell, David Doyle, Indranil Rudra
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2253
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Fuels are subjected to extreme conditions inside a fuel injector. In modern common rail diesel engines, fuel temperatures can reach 150°C and pressures can exceed 2500 bar inside the rail. Under such conditions the fluid physical properties of the fuel can differ substantially from ambient pressure and temperature and can impact the spray behavior and characteristics. Moreover, experimental determination of the fuel physical properties at these extreme conditions can be very difficult.Previously it has been shown that for pure components, all atom molecular simulations offer a reliable means to calculate the key physical properties (including transport properties, e.g., viscosity) at FIE representative conditions. In this study we extend the approach to calculate these properties of binary mixtures using atomistic molecular simulations. We modelled the diesel fuel using two diesel surrogates: a modern “GTL-like” diesel fuel surrogate, n-hexadecane, and a “conventional” diesel fuel surrogate n-decylbenzene and calculated viscosity and density for the respective pure components and their various binary mixtures.The molecular dynamics simulations provide insights into the mechanisms at an atomic level and can reliably calculate…
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Influence of Crankcase Oil Properties on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition Encountered in a Highly-Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Jiangling Motors, Co., Ltd-Ho Teng, Xuwei Luo, Tingjun Hu, Ruigang Miao, Min Wu, Bin Chen, Fanhua Zeng
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2270
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports an experimental investigation on the influence of the crankcase oil properties on the engine combustion in the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) zone. The investigation was conducted on a highly boosted 1.5L TGDI engine operated at the low-speed-end maximum torque, at which LSPI events were observed most frequently. Six different engine oils were tested, covering SAE 0W-20, 0W-30, 0W-40, 5W-20, 5W-30 and 5W-40. In order to evaluate the evaporative characteristics of the crankcase oil, for each of the selected engine oils, the tests were conducted at two different coolant temperatures, 90°C and 105°C. Because SAE 5W-30 was the base oil for the engine under study, for this particular oil, the investigation was extended to the impact of different levels of the mixture enrichment. Followings were found: 1) LSPI events were observed when the engine was operated with a stoichiometric mixture for all the oils tested. 2) No clear indication on which SAE oil tested had a stronger influence on LSPI than other oils, either promoting or inhibiting LSPI, because the influences on LSPI of…
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Compositional Effects of Gasoline Fuels on Combustion, Performance and Emissions in Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Ahfaz Ahmed, Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Eshan Singh, William Roberts, Sukho Chung, Mani Sarathy
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2166
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Commercial gasoline fuels are complex mixtures of numerous hydrocarbons. Their composition differs significantly owing to several factors, source of crude oil being one of them. Because of such inconsistency in composition, there are multiple gasoline fuel compositions with similar octane ratings. It is of interest to comparatively study such fuels with similar octane ratings and different composition, and thus dissimilar physical and chemical properties. Such an investigation is required to interpret differences in combustion behavior of gasoline fuels that show similar knock characteristics in a cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine, but may behave differently in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines or any other engine combustion modes. Two FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE F and FACE G with similar Research and Motor Octane Numbers but dissimilar physical properties were studied in a DISI engine under two sets of experimental conditions; the first set involved early fuel injection to allow sufficient time for fuel-air mixing hence permitting operation similar to homogenous DISI engines, while the second set consists of advance of spark timings…
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