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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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ERRATUM: On the Potential of Oxygenated Fuels as an Additional Degree of Freedom in the Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

RWTH Aachen Univ.-Barbara Graziano, Stefan Pischinger
Vka Rwth-Florian Kremer
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0890.01
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The original Equation 3 found at the bottom of page 64 was erroneous.
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A Novel Method to Evaluate the Combustion Quality of Gasoline Engines: Exhaust Waveform Using AutoEKG Fuel System Analyzer

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Automotive Test Solutions Inc-Bernie Thompson
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology-Nadir Yilmaz, Stephen Davis, Jacob James
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9076
Published 2015-11-01 by SAE International in United States
A tool was developed by Illinois Tool Works (ITW) called the “AutoEKG®FSA” (AutoEKG Fuel System Analyzer) which evaluates combustion quality in an engine by measuring the exhaust pulses of the engine. While many factors are known to influence combustion quality and the wave pattern produced by the instrument, the primary factor in this study was the presence of an asphalt-like material in the air intake system. By examining the waveforms measured by the AutoEKGFSA system before and after carbon cleaning, it has been observed that the engines studied not only run better after the removal of carbon in the system, but the improvements may be measured using this system.
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Testing and Prediction of Material Compatibility of Biofuel Candidates with Elastomeric Materials

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

RWTH Aachen Univ-Stefan Heitzig, Alexander Weinebeck, Hubertus Murrenhoff
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9075
Published 2015-11-01 by SAE International in United States
In this paper compatibility studies of biofuel candidates and similar liquids with the elastomeric materials nitrile butadiene rubber and fluoroelastomer are presented. The results gained with defined reference elastomers are compared to results gained with the materials used in the technical application. For this purpose test specimens are prepared from fuel hoses and the material used for shaft seals of fuel pumps. The experimental results are subsequently used to evaluate prediction approaches based on the HSP- and QSPR-method. Finally a comparison of these two approaches is given.
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Evaluation of H2/N2 as an Alternative to H2/He for Flame Ionization Detector Mix Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Air Liquide-Anuj Kumar, Valentin Rougé, Nathalie Luu, Steven Yu, Valerie Bossoutrot, Steve Hagen, Tracey Jacksier
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2803
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The Flame Ionization Detection (FID) is the most sensitive and widely used technology for the measurement of total hydrocarbons (THC). In the automotive emission testing of hydrocarbons, the fuel used for the flame in the FID analyzer is a mixture of hydrogen and helium in the ratio of 40:60. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised 40CFR part 1065 in April 2014 to include nitrogen as a balance gas alternative to helium for FID fuel mixtures used in the automotive industry. In addition to the balance gas alternative, the FID fuel blend tolerance was decreased from 40±2% to 40±1% (0.39 to 0.41mol/mol) hydrogen to minimize the impact on analyzer response. The feasibility of nitrogen as a FID fuel balance gas was studied and compared with a helium balance gas to understand the relative impact on emission testing. The study evaluated multiple hydrogen concentrations ranging from 38-42% in both balance gases. The FID fuel was also evaluated to determine the impact of hydrocarbon contamination (0-100ppb) on the instrumental response. Hydrocarbon detection was found to be more sensitive…
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Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel, n-Heptane, and iso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Seung Yeon Yang, Nimal Naser, Suk Ho Chung
Korea National Univ of Transportation-Junepyo Cha
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9074
Published 2015-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Effects of temperature, pressure and global equivalence ratio on total ignition delay time in a constant volume spray combustion chamber were investigated for diesel fuel along with the primary reference fuels (PRFs) of n-heptane and iso-octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior.A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel pump. A gradient method was adopted in determining the start of ignition in order to compensate pressure increase induced by low temperature heat release. Comparison of this method with other existing methods was discussed. Ignition delay times were measured at various equivalence ratios (0.5-1.7) with the temperatures of initial charge air in the range from 698 to 860 K and the pressures in the range of 1.5 to 2.1 MPa, pertinent to low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions. An attempt to scale the effect of pressure on total ignition delay was undertaken and the equivalence ratio exponent and activation energy in the Arrhenius expression of…
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Characterization of the Ultrafine and Black Carbon Emissions from Different Aviation Alternative Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Environment Canada-Tak W. Chan, David Buote
National Research Council Canada-Wajid Chishty, Craig Davison
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2562
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
This study reports gaseous and particle (ultrafine and black carbon (BC)) emissions from a turbofan engine core on standard Jet A-1 and three alternative fuels, including 100% hydrothermolysis synthetic kerosene with aromatics (CH-SKA), 50% Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acid paraffinic kerosene (HEFA-SPK), and 100% Fischer Tropsch (FT-SPK). Gaseous emissions from this engine for various fuels were similar but significant differences in particle emissions were observed. During the idle condition, it was observed that the non-refractory mass fraction in the emitted particles were higher than during higher engine load condition. This observation is consistent for all test fuels. The 100% CH-SKA fuel was found to have noticeable reductions in BC emissions when compared to Jet A-1 by 28-38% by different BC instruments (and 7% in refractory particle number (PN) emissions) at take-off condition. BC emissions from this fuel were lower than from Jet A-1 by 45-50% (and 25-26% in refractory PN) at idle or cruise condition. The 100% CH-SKA fuel was observed to have a minimum influence on non-refractory PN emissions. A lower volume in naphthalene…
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Soot Investigation on Fish Oil Spray Combustion in a Constant Volume Cell

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Maximilian Malin
NTNU-Vladimir Krivopolianskii, Bjørn Rygh, Vilmar Aesoy, Eilif Pedersen
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2479
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Maritime environmental regulations stipulate lower emissions from the shipping industry. To cope with these rules, improving the combustion processes, make use of cleaner alternative fuels and implement exhaust gas cleaning systems is necessary. Alternative fuels, like fish oil, have a potential to reduce soot formation during the combustion process and will be deeply investigated in this paper. For this purpose, two different types of fish oil and their blends with marine gas oil (MGO) have been tested in a constant volume pre-combustion cell (CVPC). The CVPC laboratory was built in collaboration between MARINTEK and NTNU. To generate similar injection condition in the combustion cell as in an internal combustion engine, the CVPC is heated using a chemical heating process. The CVPC is used as a fundamental investigation tool for studying the fuel injection system for large engine applications. Parameters that were studied include the combustion, spray development, fuel evaporation process and ignition delay. The general experimental setup of the test facility is described and the optical methods applied are explained for the investigation of fish…
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A Comparative Analysis on Engine Performance of a Conventional Diesel Fuel and 10% Biodiesel Blends Produced from Coconut Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Scientific Research Organization of Samo-Samani Tupufia
The University of New South Wales-Changhwan Woo, Sanghoon Kook, Peter Rogers, Christopher Marquis, Evatt Hawkes
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2489
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents engine performance and emissions of coconut oil-derived 10% biodiesel blends in petroleum diesel demonstrating simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emissions and increased brake power. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder version of a light-duty diesel engine for three different fuels including a conventional diesel fuel and two B10 fuels of chemical-catalyst-based methyl-ester biodiesel (B10mc) and biological-catalyst-based ethyl-ester biodiesel (B10eb). The engine tests were conducted at fixed speed of 2000 rpm and injection pressure of 130 MPa. In addition to the fuel variation, the injection timing and rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were also varied because they impact the combustion and thus the efficiency and emissions significantly. For each operating condition, the in-cylinder pressure traces were recorded using a piezo-electric pressure transducer, which was used to calculate the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), apparent heat release rate (aHRR), burn duration. The brake MEP (BMEP) was calculated from a brake torque reading in the EC dynamometer, which was then used to obtain friction MEP (FMEP) as the difference between IMEP and…
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An Experimental Study on the Use of Butanol or Octanol Blends in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chalmers Univ of Technology-Tankai Zhang, Karin Munch, Ingemar Denbratt
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2491
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Global warming driven by “greenhouse gas” emissions is an increasingly serious concern of both the public and legislators. A potentially potent way to reduce these emissions and conserve fossil fuel resources is to use n-butanol, iso-butanol or octanol (2-ethylhexanol) from renewable sources as alternative fuels in diesel engines. The effects of adding these substances to diesel fuel were therefore tested in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine operated using factory settings. These alcohols have better calorific values, flash points, lubricity, cetane numbers and solubility in diesel than shorter-chain alcohols. However, they have lower cetane numbers than diesel, so either hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) or Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was added to the diesel-alcohol mixtures to generate blends with the same Cetane Number (CN) as diesel. Blends containing 10 and 20% of n-butanol or iso-butanol, or 30 % octanol were tested at four operating points from the European Stationary Cycle. The same engine settings were used in all cases.The average engine performance in tests with the blends was similar to that achieved with pure diesel but the…
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Analysis of Averaging Methods for Large Eddy Simulations of Diesel Sprays

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

ETH Zurich-Daniele Farrace, Ronny Panier, Martin Schmitt, Konstantinos Boulouchos
ETH Zurich/Combustion+FlowSolutions GmbH-Yuri M. Wright
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2464
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) provide instantaneous values indispensable to conduct statistical studies of relevant fluctuating quantities for diesel sprays. However, numerous realizations are generally necessary for LES to derive statistically averaged quantities necessary for validation of the numerical framework by means of measurements and for conducting sensitivity studies, leading to extremely high computational efforts. In this context, the aim of this work is to explore and validate alternatives to the simulation of 20-50 single realizations at considerably lower computational costs, by taking advantage of the axisymmetric geometry and the Quasi-Steady-State (QSS) condition of the near nozzle flow at a certain time after start-of-injection (SOI). Three different approaches are proposed and carefully investigated: the first combines ensemble with spatial averaging techniques based on the estimation of the azimuthal integral length scales to assess the maximal number of independent profiles; the second proposes in addition a time averaging technique that relies on the QSS assumption, whereas a third approach merges all the mentioned techniques together. Results show that for axisymmetric constant volume geometries, converged statistics (mean and…
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