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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Using Isobutanol-Extended Fuel in Recreational Marine Two-Stroke and Four-Stroke Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Laboratory-Thomas Wallner
Bombardier Recreational Product Inc.-Jeff R. Wasil
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-32-0087
Published 2014-11-11 by SAE International in United States
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10).Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.
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Molecular Structure of Hydrocarbons and Auto-Ignition Characteristics of HCCI Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Hokkaido University-Gen Shibata, Ryota Kawaguchi, Soumei Yoshida, Hideyuki Ogawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-32-0003
Published 2014-11-11 by SAE International in United States
The chemical composition of marketed gasoline varies depending on the crude oil, refinery processes of oil refineries, and season. The combustion characteristics of HCCI engines are very sensitive to the fuel composition, and a fuel standard for HCCI is needed for HCCI vehicles to be commercially viable. In this paper, the effects of the structure of the fuel components on auto-ignition characteristics and HCCI engine performance were investigated. The engine employed in the experiments is a research, single cylinder HCCI engine with a compression ratio of 14.7. The intake manifold was equipped with a heater attachment allowing control of the intake air temperature up to 150 °C at 2000 rpm. Thirteen kinds of hydrocarbons, 4 kinds of paraffins, 3kinds of naphthenes, and 6 kinds of aromatics, were chosen for the investigation, and 20vol% of each of the pure hydrocarbons was blended with the 80 vol% of PFR50 fuel. The HCCI engine was operated with the thirteen kinds of fuels under the same equivalence ratio, and the relative ignitability (the HI index: the hydrocarbon ignitability index,…
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Development and Validation of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Large-Scale Mechanisms

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Technical University of Denmark-Kar Mun Pang, Jesper Schramm
University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus-Hiew Mun Poon, Hoon Kiat Ng, Suyin Gan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2576
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
This work is an extension to a previously reported work on chemical kinetic mechanism reduction scheme for large-scale mechanisms. Here, Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) was added as a criterion of data source for mechanism reduction instead of using only auto-ignition condition. As a result, a reduced n-hexadecane mechanism with 79 species for diesel fuel surrogate was successfully derived from the detailed mechanism. Following that, the reduced n-hexadecane mechanism was validated under auto-ignition and PSR conditions using zero-dimensional (0-D) closed homogeneous batch reactor in CHEMKIN-PRO software. Agreement was achieved between the reduced and detailed mechanisms in ignition timing predictions and the reduced n-hexadecane mechanism was able to reproduce species concentration profiles with a maximum error of 40%. Accordingly, two-dimensional (2-D) Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed to study the spray combustion phenomena within a constant volume bomb. Both non-reacting and reacting conditions were applied in this study. Liquid and vapor penetration lengths were replicated for non-reacting diesel spray. For reacting diesel spray, both ignition delay and lift-off length were simulated. The simulation results were then…
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The Influence of Ethanol Blending in Diesel fuel on the Spray and Spray Combustion Characteristics

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chalmers University of Tech.-Chengjun Du, Mats Andersson, Sven Andersson
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2755
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
The influence of ethanol blending in Diesel fuel on the spray and spray combustion characteristics was investigated by performing experiments in an optically accessible high-pressure / high-temperature spray chamber under non-evaporating, evaporating and combusting conditions. Three fuels were investigated: (1) Diesel - a European Diesel based on the EN590 standard; (2) E10 - a blend of Diesel containing 10% ethanol and 2% emulsion additive; and (3) E20 - a blend of Diesel containing 20% ethanol and 2% emulsion additive. A constant gas density of 24.3 kg/m3 was maintained under non-evaporating (30 °C, 21.1 bar), evaporating (350 °C, 43.4 bar), low combustion temperature (550 °C, 57.3 bar) and high combustion temperature (600 °C, 60 bar) conditions. A single-hole injector with a nozzle diameter of 0.14 mm was used and injection pressure was held constant at 1350 bar. Various optical methods were used to characterize the non-combusting and combusting sprays.Despite the differences in the fuels' compositions, they did not differ significantly with respect to their liquid phase spray penetrations or cone angles under non-evaporating or evaporating conditions.…
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Spectroscopic Studies of Internal Injector Deposits (IDID) Resulting from the Use of Non-Commercial Low Molecular Weight Polyisobutylenesuccinimide (PIBSI)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Innospec-Jim Barker, Jacqueline Reid
University of Nottingham-Colin Snape, David Scurr, William Meredith
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2720
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Since 2009, there has been a rise in deposits of various types found in diesel fuel injection systems. They have been identified in the filter, the injector tip and recently inside the injector. The latter internal diesel injector deposits (IDIDs) have been the subject of a number of recent publications, and are the subject of investigations by CRC (Central Research Council Diesel Performance Group-Deposit Panel Bench/ Rig Investigation sub panel) in the US and CEN (Committee European de Normalisation TC19/WG24 Injector Deposit Task Force) and CEC (Coordinating European Council TDFG-110 engine test) in Europe.In the literature one of the internal injector deposit types, amide lacquers, has been associated with a poorly characterised noncommercial low molecular weight polyisobutylene succinimide detergent which also lacked provenance.This work will describe a well characterised non-commercial low molecular weight polyisobutylenesuccinimide, the engine tests associated with it and the spectroscopic analysis of the needle of the resultant stuck injectors. An engine test of a commercial grade PIBSI detergent that showed no sticking will also be described.
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Minimizing Diesel Particulate Filter Incombustibles by Using Ultra Low Ash - Zero Phosphorus Oil

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chevron Lubricants-James A. McGeehan
Chevron Oronite Company LLC-Wim Van Dam, Ken Nelson, Alex Boffa, Kevin Carabell
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2798
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Due to engine oil consumption, over 90% of the incombustibles in the diesel particulate filters (DPF) are derived from organometallic lubricant additives. These components are derived from calcium and magnesium detergents, zinc dithiophosphates (ZnDTP) and metal-containing oxidation inhibitors. They do not regenerate as they are non-volatile metals and salts. Consequently, the DPF has to be removed from the vehicle for cleaning.Ashless oil could eliminate the need for cleaning. This study initially focused on development of an ashless oil, but eventually concluded that this oil could not meet the valve-train wear requirements of the API CJ-4, SN/ACEA E9 oil categories. However, a zero-phosphorus oil with no ZnDTP and an extremely low sulfated ash of 0.4% demonstrated that it could meet critical engine tests in API CJ-4/ACEA/SN.The above oil, which has been optimized at 0.3% sulfated ash, has proven field performance in Cummins ISX with DPF using ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD). This was verified by engine inspections and used oil analysis at 60,000 miles (97,000 km) oil drains. DPF cleaning determined at 95% confidence level that…
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An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Hefei University of Tech.-Haichun Ding
Jaguar Land Rover Limited-Adam Weall, Phil Kirkby, Brian Cooper, Ian Edington
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2722
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85). The deposits were analysed with SEM-EDS, FTIR Microscopy, TD-GCMS and an Alicona Infinite Focus 3D micro-coordinate system to assess the chemical composition and topography of the deposits for insights into their formation mechanisms. The location and topography of the deposits in this study indicate that they form in the region of the injector tip, and reduce in size…
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Diesel Fuel Lubricity Comparisons with HFRR and Scuffing Load Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator Methods

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Neste Oil Corp.-Kalle Lehto, Aki Vepsäläinen, Ulla Kiiski, Markku Kuronen
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2761
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Diesel fuel requires sufficient lubricity to prevent excessive wear in fuel injection equipment. The processes for removing sulfur from diesel fuel also eliminate compounds that are responsible for its lubricating properties. This phenomenon is counterbalanced by employing lubricity additives to restore fuel lubricity to an acceptable level.The aim of this study was to compare the two different laboratory methods for testing lubricity. The two methods were the EN 590 standard method high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) and a less utilized method scuffing load ball-on-cylinder lubricity evaluator (SLBOCLE). Two different commercial lubricity additives were used. In addition, rapeseed methyl ester (RME) was used for lubricity purposes in the same way as the additives. To study the possible effect of the base fuel, the tests were performed with fossil diesel fuel, paraffinic diesel (Hydrotreated vegetable oil, HVO), and a blend of these.The best HFRR - SLBOCLE correlation was found with RME used as a lubricity additive, but the results were still conflicting concerning the approval limits. With the commercial lubricity additives, the best correlation was achieved with…
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Simulation of Cam Wear in Valve Trains of Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Beijing Institute of Tech.-Wenjie Qin, Lunjing Duan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2879
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
In order to predict cam wear in valve trains of engines quantitatively, multi-body system dynamic analysis, finite element quasi-statics contact analysis and numerical calculation of elastohydrodynamic lubrication are applied to obtain the dynamic loads, the time histories of contact pressure and the oil film thicknesses in a cam-tappet pair. Using this methodology, the wear depth of the cam in the valve train of a heavy load diesel engine is calculated, which is in good agreement with the measured value in the practical tests. The results show that the cam-tappet is operated in a mixed lubricant or a boundary lubricant regime and the wear depths on both the sides of the cam have been found to be the greatest.
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The Effect of Fuel Temperature on the Ethanol Direct Injection Spray Characteristics of a Multi-hole Injector

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

HUST & UTS-Yuhan Huang
Huazhong Univ. of Sci. & Tech. (HUST)-Sheng Huang, Peng Deng, Ronghua Huang
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2734
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Ethanol direct injection (EDI) is a new technology to use ethanol fuel more efficiently in spark ignition engines. Fuel temperature is one of the key factors which determine the evaporation process of liquid fuel spray, and consequently influence the combustion and emission generation of the engine. To better understand the mixture formation process of the EDI spray and provide experimental data for engine modelling, experiments were conducted in a constant volume chamber in engine-like conditions. The high speed Shadowgraphy imaging technique was used to capture the ethanol spray behaviours. The experiments covered a wide range of fuel temperature, ranged from 275 K (non-evaporating) to 400 K (flash-boiling). Particularly the transition of the ethanol spray from normal-evaporating to flash-boiling was investigated. The temporal Shadowgraphy spray images, spray tip penetration, angle and projected area were applied to evaluate the evaporation of EDI spray under different fuel temperature conditions. The results showed that the non-evaporating spray's characteristics were similar to the normal-evaporating sprays' in terms of spray tip penetration, angle and projected area. When the fuel temperature increased…
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