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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Analysis of Ethanol Fuel Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Teresa L. Alleman
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9071
Published 2013-11-20 by SAE International in United States
In the last three years, three quality surveys on ethanol-blended fuels intended for use in flex-fuel vehicles have been published. Two of these surveys cover Flex-Fuel quality, and the third encompasses the quality of mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs) from blender pumps. The purpose of these surveys was to report on the quality of the fuels and provide a snapshot in time of fuel quality.This study examines the larger picture portrayed by these surveys and looks for broader trends in fuel quality. The analysis found that compliance with vapor pressure specification limits for Flex Fuel improved from 40% to 66% in Class 1, from 31% to 43% in Class 2, and from 12% to 30% in Class 3 between 2008 and 2010. Failures on other critical properties, such as acidity, pHe, water, and inorganic chloride were less than 6% in these studies.The 2010 Flex Fuel samples readily met the ethanol content specification, with 88%, 92%, and 95% compliance for Classes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In contrast, the 2008 Flex Fuel samples met the ethanol content…
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On-Line Lubricants Health Condition Monitoring in Gearbox Application

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

CEAS Western Michigan University-Massood Atashbar
Eaton Corp-John Manyala
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9074
Published 2013-11-20 by SAE International in United States
The lubricant wear and degradation is a major cause of failure in industrial machines such as engines, pumps and gearboxes. This is primarily due to contaminants such as metal debris particles and depletion of the chemical and physical properties. This paper presents a low cost, multi-functional sensor for real-time monitoring of both oil level and the debris particles in oil lubricants for a gearbox application. The sensor system achieves a micrometer-order resolution (37.5 μm), high linearity (< 0.5 mm non-linearity) and insensitivity to viscosity changes due to wide temperature fluctuations from −40 °C to 135 °C, and is designed for ease of manufacturing and application in harsh transmission environment. The synergy from simultaneous data analysis from a multi-functional sensor has been demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively using mathematical analysis, computer simulation and physical experiments.
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Diesel Fuel by Scrap-Tyre Thermal-Mechanical Pyrolysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

University of Pisa-Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Maurizia Seggiani, Monica Puccini
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9038
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Current energy policies are encouraging the near-term use of fuels derived from civil and industrial waste residues, giving new perspectives for their disposal.The possibility of using, in Diesel engines, a liquid fuel derived from waste synthetic polymeric matrices, such as scrap tyres, is evaluated in this paper. The fuel is obtained by means of an innovative technology based on a thermo-mechanical cracking process at moderate temperatures and pressures.A preliminary investigation was carried out on a 440 cm3 single-cylinder Diesel engine for stationary applications using a commercial automotive Diesel fuel (UNI-EN 590:2010) and two mixtures of automotive Diesel fuel and tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO): the first one containing 20% TPO by volume, the other containing 40% TPO. With the first mixture, test bench results in terms of engine torque, power, specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are similar to the ones relative to automotive Diesel fuel, whereas the use of the mixture with 40% TPO leads to a general worsening in engine combustion features.Lubricant oil analysis, made at the end of the tests, proves a certain…
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Highly Efficient Lubricant for Sport Motorcycle Application - Fuel Economy and Durability Testing

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Castrol Ltd.-Gianluigi Zoli, May Turner, Cliff Newman
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9033
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
As a result of extremely competitive market environment and severe emission legislation, motorcycle manufacturers are giving increased focus to the lubricant as a potential tool to improve engine performance reducing at same time tailpipe emissions and fuel consumption. However, due to very specific hardware constraints, application of highly efficient low viscosity oils to modern motorcycle requires careful formulation approach and thorough testing procedure. Previous work carried out by Castrol and described in SAE paper # 2011-32-0513 indicated that optimized, low viscosity motorcycle engine oils, formulated with dedicated technology to combine optimum clutch compatibility with engine and gearbox protection, can bring significant increase in engine power and acceleration in comparison with commercially available lubricants. This paper describes the progress of the development work, aiming at further understanding potential benefits and constraints arising from the application of low viscosity, highly efficient engine oils to current motorcycle engine technology. The work included the evaluation of the fuel economy potential for experimental low viscosity formulations using a sport tourer motorcycle fitted on chassis dynamometer, followed by extended high speed…
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Study on Combustion and Soot Emission of Ethanol or Butanol Blended with Gas Oil in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Nagasaki Univ.-Shohei Yamamoto, Shotaro Watanabe, Keisuke Komada, Daisaku Sakaguchi, Hironobu Ueki, Masahiro Ishida
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9112
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In order to utilize bio-alcohols as the fuel for diesel engines, combustion characteristics of alcohol blended with gas oil were compared between ethanol and n-butanol in a direct injection diesel engine. In the case of the same cetane number between ethanol and butanol blends, the time-history of combustion, in other words, the ignition delay, the diffusion combustion and the combustion duration, coincided almost completely in both blend fuels. However, the smoke density of the butanol blend was smaller than that of the ethanol blend. This result must be caused by difference in soot formation process between ethanol and butanol blends. Thus, it is difficult to predict the trend of the soot emission in combustion of alcohol blends only by using the existing phenomenological model of the soot formation in the combustion of gas oil. In the present study, the concept of the threshold sooting index (TSI), which has been proposed as the sooting tendency in fuel flames, was incorporated into the soot formation model in KIVA-3V code. The soot emission trend obtained in the experiments…
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Improving Fuel Efficiency of Motorcycle Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Sumitaka Hirose
Lubrizol Corp.-Brent Dohner, Alex Michlberger, Chris Castanien
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9063
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
As the motorcycle market grows, the fuel efficiency of motorcycle oils is becoming an important issue due to concerns over the conservation of natural resources and the protection of the environment. Fuel efficient engine oils have been developed for passenger cars by moving to lower viscosity grades and formulating the additive package to reduce friction. Motorcycle oils, however, which operate in much higher temperature regimes, must also lubricate the transmission and the clutch, and provide gear protection. This makes their requirements fundamentally very different from passenger car oils. Developing fuel efficient motorcycle oils, therefore, can be a difficult challenge. Formulating to reduce friction may cause clutch slippage and reducing the viscosity grade in motorcycles must be done carefully due to the need for gear protection. Additionally, in high temperature motorcycle engines, low viscosity oils are more prone to oil consumption, which will negatively impact fuel economy. They also may cause more deposit formation, which can reduce overall performance.The lowest viscosity grade oil currently recommended by Honda for motorcycle applications is a 10W-30. This study describes…
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Influence of Fuel Properties on Operational Range and Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Combustion

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Hokkaido Univ.-Qian Xiong, Kazuki Inaba, Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9054
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The influence of fuel properties on the operational range and the thermal efficiency of premixed diesel combustion was evaluated with an ordinary diesel fuel, a primary reference fuel for cetane numbers, three primary reference fuels for octane numbers, and two normal heptane-toluene blend fuels in a single-cylinder DI diesel engine. The fuel injection timing was set at 25°CA BTDC and the maximum rate of pressure rise was maintained below 1.0 MPa/°CA when lowering the intake oxygen concentration by cooled EGR. With increasing octane numbers, the higher intake oxygen concentration can be used, resulting in higher indicated thermal efficiency due to a higher combustion efficiency. The best thermal efficiency at the optimum intake oxygen concentration with the ordinary diesel fuel is lower than with the primary reference fuels with the similar ignitability but higher volatility. The deterioration with diesel fuel is due to an increase in fuel which does not contribute to the effective combustion, as the high distillation components of diesel fuel adhere to the wall of combustion chamber. The operational range with normal heptane-toluene…
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Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Water and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with Cooled EGR and Pilot Injection

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Hokkaido Univ.-Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata, Takaki Kato
The Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology-Hari Setiapraja
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9022
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Water and diesel fuel emulsions containing 13% and 26% water by volume were investigated in a modern diesel engine with relatively early pilot injection, supercharging, and cooled EGR. The heat release from the pilot injection with water emulsions is retarded toward the top dead center due to the poor ignitability, which enables larger pilot and smaller main injection quantities. This characteristic results in improvements in the thermal efficiency due to the larger heat release near the top dead center and the smaller afterburning. With the 26% water emulsion, mild, smokeless, and very low NOx operation is possible at an optimum pilot injection quantity and 15% intake oxygen with EGR at or below 0.9 MPa IMEP, a condition where large smoke emissions are unavoidable with regular unblended diesel fuel. Heat transfer analysis with Woschni's equation did not show the decrease in cooling loss with the water emulsion fuels. Single spray combustions with the water emulsions and the regular unblended diesel fuel in a constant volume combustion vessel were analyzed with a high-speed video and a 2-D…
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Size Distribution and Structure of Wall-Deposited Soot Particles in an Automotive-Size Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

The University of New South Wales-Renlin Zhang, Kevin Szeto, Sanghoon Kook
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2534
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Wall-deposition of soot particles occurs during the cylinder liner wall/flame interaction, which can potentially deteriorate engine oil quality and alter the heat loss rate in a diesel engine. These issues motivate a detailed study on structure and size of the wall-deposited soot particles. A morphological difference between the wall-deposited soot and in-flame soot particles is another focus of this study. We performed thermophoretic soot sampling in the cylinder liner wall using an in-liner-type sampler. Obtained soot particles were imaged by a transmission electron microscope and post-processed to acquire the number of particles, projection area on the sampling grid, and size distribution. The same set of data was also obtained for soot particles within the diesel flame using a probe-type sampler. The results show that the amount of soot particles deposited on the wall is about 2.7% (by means of number of particles and projection area on the grid) of those collected inside the flame. Close examination of soot particles structure suggests that the wall-deposited soot particles are largely different to the in-flame soot particles. It…
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Inner Diesel Injector Deposit Formation Mechanism

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

DENSO Corp.-Akio Tanaka, Koichi Yamada, Toshihiko Omori, Satoshi Bunne, Katsuhiko Hosokawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2661
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Higher pressure and higher precision are required for diesel fuel injection equipment in response to increasingly severe emissions control regulations. Market diesel fuels have become more diversified than in the past. Diesel fuel quality has also been changing, being affected by crude oil slate, extreme lowering of sulfur content, and diesel reformulated from heavy fuel oil, among other reasons. As a result of this, deposits thought to have a fuel origin have been observed within diesel fuel injectors in certain regions. Related changes in fuel injection quantity have also been observed.This paper determines injector deposit production mechanisms. It focuses on the structural changes of deposit causative substances by temperature as well as injector design change improvements to prevent deposits. It also reports effects of reduced temperature on fuel injection equipment (FIE) and improved surface treatment methods for the internal parts, based on mechanisms determined from glassware tests.
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