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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Optimization and Validation for Injector Nozzle Hole Diameter of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine using GT-Power Simulation Tool

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Abhishek Nerkar
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2306
Published 2012-11-15 by SAE International in United States
Single cylinder diesel engines are widely used as a power source of gen-sets, three wheelers, agricultural machines in small household applications in Indian automotive sector. Due to its simple structure and mechanism, the operation, maintenance and repairing for this kind of engines is also easily possible. Now, in order to satisfy stringent emission norms there is a need for the development of the above engines.In this paper, software-predicted performance at different load conditions for a constant speed diesel engine (Gen-set application) are being determined by using GT-Power software. This performance is being validated with the actual Experimented Performance Results. In the above-mentioned simulation we basically used "EngCylCombDIJet Simulation" model. The validated model is used for further work. Critical parameters were listed based on the sensitivity analysis on the base model. Critical parameters were optimized for achieving the desired fuel injector nozzle hole diameter.A very close validation with less than 1% difference is achieved at full load. While a less than 10% difference is achieved at part loads. The simulation model predicts the Power, Torque, BSFC,…
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Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Doshisha University-Jiro Senda
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Hiroki Maekawa , Satoshi Kato
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-32-0031
Published 2012-10-23 by SAE International in United States
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency. Numerical investigation into the pressure rise rate reduction mechanism was also performed by use of a multi-component fuel model developed by the authors. The calculated result showed that the pressure rise rate was reduced due to the difference in the vapor concentrations between two components which have difference reactivity.
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Combustion and Emissions with Bio-alcohol and Nonesterified Vegetable Oil Blend Fuels in a Small Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Hokkaido Univ.-Hideyuki Ogawa, Hari Setiapraja, Gen Shibata
Yanmar Co. Ltd.-Kosuke Hara
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-32-0017
Published 2012-10-23 by SAE International in United States
Combustion and exhaust gas emissions of alcohol and vegetable oil blends including a 20% ethanol + 40% 1-butanol + 40% vegetable oil blend and a 50% 1-butanol + 50% vegetable oil blend were examined in a single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 0.83L direct injection diesel engine, with a supercharger and a common rail fuel injection system. A 50% diesel oil + 50% vegetable oil blend and regular unblended diesel fuel were used as reference fuels. The boost pressure was kept constant at 160 kPa (absolute pressure), and the cooled low pressure loop EGR was realized by mixing with a part of the exhaust gas. Pilot injection is effective to suppress rapid combustion due to the lower ignitability of the alcohol and vegetable oil blends. The effects of reductions in the intake oxygen concentration with cooled EGR and changes in the fuel injection pressure were investigated for the blended fuels. Also, the operation with all the blended and reference fuels with optimized pilot quantities and suitable EGR rates was investigated over a wide range of IMEP 1.0…
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Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Michael P. Lammert, Robert L. McCormick, Petr Sindler, Aaron Williams
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1984
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this research project was to compare the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from transit buses on as many as five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles to establish if there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Prior studies have shown that B20 can cause a small but significant increase in NOx emissions for some engines and duty cycles. Six buses spanning engine build years 1998 to 2011 were tested on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants research laboratory's heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic [California Air Resources Board (CARB)] diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. The buses selected represented the majority of the current national transit fleet as well as including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems that are increasing penetration in the fleet.The engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx, with the kinetic intensity of the tested…
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FAME Filterability: Understanding and Solutions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Infineum UK Ltd-Ben Hornby, Isabel van Zuylen
Infineum USA LP-Stephanie Camerlynck, John Chandler
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1589
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) into the diesel pool has led to an increase in the incidence of diesel fuel filter blocking. In contrast to conventional diesel, filter blocking events can occur above a fuel's Cloud Point (CP). It has been shown that this phenomenon is due to trace levels of impurities carried over from the original oil source into the final fuel. The two species identified as being the main cause of the filtration problems are saturated monoglycerides (sMG) and sterol glucosides (SG).Reported in this paper is an extensive study completed to understand the impact that these impurities have on the filterability of FAME and FAME containing fuels. This has been investigated using laboratory based filterability tests that incorporate a specific cold soak and the critical contaminant levels causing failure have been determined. In addition to this, the appearance of the crystals formed and their coverage of the fuel filter surface have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).These two techniques have also been used to identify and select additive technology…
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Cold-Start/Warm-Up Vehicle Performance and Driveability Index for Gasolines Containing Isobutanol

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP-Leslie Wolf
Butamax Advanced Biofuels, LLC-James Baustian
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1741
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Findings from an intermediate ambient temperature vehicle driveability study for isobutanol gasoline blends are reported. The pattern for the study was Coordinating Research Council Project CM-138-02, which investigated the effects of ethanol on cold-start/warm-up performance and Driveability Index. Objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the efficacy of the current ASTM Driveability Index (DI) in predicting cold-start and warm-up driveability performance for isobutanol gasolines and (b) if required, identify modifications to the DI definition and specification limits for isobutanol blends. The test fuel matrix included fifteen fuels with nominal vapor pressures of 55 kPa (8 psi) at DI levels of 1150, 1200, 1250, and 1300 and isobutanol concentrations of 0, 16, and 24 volume percent. Twelve port- and direct-fuel-injected vehicles, which included US Tier 2 passenger cars and light-duty trucks from model years 2005 through 2008, were used to evaluate the test fuels. Cold-start and warm-up driveability tests were conducted at 4°C (40°F) following CRC E28 procedures as modified for all-weather chassis dynamometer implementation. As found in previous studies, cold-start and warm-up driveability…
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Permanent Magnetic Model Design and Characteristic Analysis of the Short-stroke Free Piston Alternator

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

College of Automotive Eng., Jilin Univ.-Huajie Ding, Xiumin Yu
Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Company-Junjie Li
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1610
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Due to the free piston engine alternator potential advantages in terms of fuel efficiency, a magnetic dynamic model was developed to describe the dynamic characteristics of free piston alternator as the Hybrid Electric Vehicle power source. The mathematic model for the permanent magnet linear alternator was introduced. A function was designed to descript the relation between the individual coil fluxes and the mover motion. And then, the total system model was simulated, and extensive simulation results are presented, giving insight into the free piston alternator operating characteristics and performance. The free piston alternator performances based on the mathematical model were also discussed comparing with prototype experiments.
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Combustion Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Diesel Engine with Natural Gas (Lower limit of Cetane Number for Ignition of the Fuel)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Kagoshima Univ.-Eiji Kinoshita
Niigata Inst. of Technology-Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Shanbu Luge, Takatoshi Ohmura
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1690
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Dual fuel diesel engines using compressed natural gas (CNG) are an attractive low polluting application, because natural gas is a clean low CO₂-emitting fuel with superior resource availability. In dual fuel diesel engines with natural gas as the main fuel the natural gas is supplied from the intake pipe and the pre-mixture formed in the cylinder is spontaneously ignited by an injected spray of ordinary gas oil. Dual fuel engines of this type have the advantages that only limited engine modifications are needed and that low calorie gas fuels such as biogas can be used. To clarify the influence of the cetane number (C.N.) of the ignition fuel on the ignition performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of the dual fuel operation, the present study used standard ignition fuels prepared by n-hexadecane and heptamethylnonane which define the ignitability of diesel combustion. The experiments focused on determining the lower C.N. limit of the ignition fuel and used standard ignition fuels of different C.N., 30 to 55, in five C.N increments. It was found that at high loads…
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Fuel Economy Beyond ILSAC GF-5: Correlation of Modern Engine Oil Tests to Real World Performance

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Corp.-Jeremy Styer, Gregory Guinther
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1618
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
A host of bench and engine tests have historically been used by formulators to assess fuel economy when developing engine oils for gasoline-powered passenger cars and light trucks. Some of these methods assess basic lubricant physical properties such as hydrodynamic, boundary and thin-film friction, and are useful for quickly screening experimental components and formulations. Some methods assess rotational drag of a motored engine and offer insights into the friction of various engine parts. Still other methods directly measure the energy consumption in a test engine running in a research laboratory and thus come the closest to simulating a consumer-operated vehicle. Each test method has inherent limitations and is based on underlying assumptions, producing artifacts that must first be understood and then analyzed for relevance to either industry lubricant specifications or real world fuel economy performance. In this paper the authors compare the response of the various test methods to typical engine oil formulation approaches, and evaluate the correlation between test response and real world fuel economy performance as measured in a specially designed vehicle fuel…
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The Limitations of the Viscosity Index and Proposals for Other Methods to Rate Viscosity-Temperature Behavior of Lubricating Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chevron Lubricants-Jack Zakarian
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1671
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The Viscosity Index (VI), now defined by ASTM D 2270, is a relative number intended to represent the degree of change in viscosity versus temperature for lubricating oils. The basis for the rating scale, which was first defined in 1929, is a comparison of a candidate oil with two reference oils, one defined as “100 VI” and the other defined as “0 VI”. The VI scale has been widely used since its inception because of its simplicity and good correlation to a number of physical and chemical properties. However, the rating method suffers from a number of fundamental problems which are not realized by most users of the method today. This paper examines the assumption basis and historical development of the VI scale with an emphasis on the arbitrary and non-systematic manner in which the “100 VI” and “0 VI” reference series have been defined and modified over the years. This paper has 3 major objectives: (1) to educate users about the limitations of the VI method and the potential for misapplication and misinterpretation of…
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