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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Improved Energy Management Using Engine Compartment Encapsulation and Grille Shutter Control

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ferit Küçükay
IAE, TU Braunschweig-Rashad Mustafa
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1203
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle thermal management system is required to increase the operating efficiency of components, to transfer the heat efficiently and to reduce the energy required for the vehicle. Vehicle thermal management technologies, such as engine compartment encapsulation together with grille shutter control, enable energy efficiency improvements through utilizing waste heat in the engine compartment for heating powertrain components as well as cabin heating and reducing the aerodynamic drag .In this work, a significant effort is put on recovering waste heat from the engine compartment to provide additional efficiency to the components using a motor compartment insulation technique and grille shutter. The tests are accelerated and the cost is reduced using a co-simulation tool based on high resolution, complex thermal and kinematics models. The results are validated with experimental values measured in a thermal wind tunnel, which provided satisfactory accuracy. A control strategy is implemented to actuate the grille shutter according to the specific conditions and a sensitivity study is introduced using the most important parameters affecting energy management performance. Using different conditions (test cycles and…
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A Comparison of Ammonia Emission Factors from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute Ltd.-Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Antoni Swiatek, Joseph Woodburn
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1095
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Vehicular ammonia emissions are currently unregulated, even though ammonia is harmful for a variety of reasons, and the gas is classed as toxic. Ammonia emissions represent a serious threat to air quality, particularly in urban settings; an ammonia emissions limit may be introduced in future legislation. Production of ammonia within the cylinder has long been known to be very limited. However, having reached its light-off temperature, a three-way catalyst can produce substantial quantities of ammonia through various reaction pathways. Production of ammonia is symptomatic of overly reducing conditions within the three-way catalyst (TWC), and depends somewhat upon the particular precious metals used. Emission is markedly higher during periods where demand for engine power is higher, when the engine will be operating under open-loop conditions. The air-to-fuel ratio, cylinder temperature and rate of availability of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide all correlate to varying degrees with ammonia production. In addition to a literature review, this study presents ammonia emissions data from three European passenger cars, using three different fuels, with varying physicochemical characteristics and carbon:hydrogen ratios,…
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Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame - A Comparison between US#2 and Biodiesel Soot

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

CMT, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Jean-Guillaume Nerva
Georgia Institute of Technology-Caroline Genzale
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0695
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
For a better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in conventional diesel and biodiesel spray flames, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in spray flames fuelled with US#2 diesel and soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at 50mm from the injector nozzle, which corresponds to the peak soot location in the spray flames. The spray flames were generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and high temperature condition (6.7MPa, 1000K). Direct sampling permits a more direct assessment of soot as it is formed and oxidized in the flame, as opposed to exhaust PM measurements. Density of sampled soot particles, diameter of primary particles, size (gyration radius) and compactness (fractal dimension) of soot aggregates were analyzed and compared. No analysis of the soot micro-structure was made. The overall morphology of the biodiesel soot bears similarity to that of #2 diesel, but the soot density, primary particle size, and fractal dimension are smaller for biodiesel.
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Lubricant Reactivity Effects on Gasoline Spark Ignition Engine Knock

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Southwest Research Institute-Manfred Amann, Terrence Alger
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1140
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The performance and efficiency of spark ignited gasoline engines is often limited by end-gas knock. In particular, when operating the engine at high loads, combustion phasing is retarded to prevent knock, resulting in a significant reduction of engine efficiency. Since the invention of the spark ignition (SI) engine, much work has been devoted to improve and regulate fuel characteristics, such as octane number, to suppress engine knock. The auto-ignition tendency of the engine lubricant however, as described by cetane number (CN), has received little attention, as it has been assumed that engine lubricant effects on knock are insignificant, primarily due to low levels of average oil consumption. However, with modern SI engines being developed to operate at higher loads and closer to knock limits, the reactivity of engine lubricants can impact the knock behavior.Unconventional oil formulations and additives have been found to lower the lubricant reactivity while maintaining necessary lubricating properties. Lubricants with low combustion reactivity allowed the engine to be operated with improved combustion phasing (spark timing) or higher geometric compression ratio, both of…
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Possible Mechanism for Poor Diesel Fuel Lubricity in the Field

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Innospec-Stephen Cook, Jim Barker, Jacqueline Reid, Paul Richards
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0867
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Traditionally, diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) has frequently relied on the diesel fuel to lubricate the moving parts. When ultra low sulphur diesel fuel was first introduced into some European markets in the early 1980's it rapidly became apparent that the process of removing the sulphur also removed other components that had bestowed the lubricating properties of the diesel fuel. Diesel fuel pump failures became prevalent. The fuel additive industry responded quickly and diesel fuel lubricity additives were introduced to the market. The fuel, additive and FIE industries expended much time and effort to develop test methods and standards to try and ensure this problem was not repeated. Despite this, there have recently been reports of fuel reaching the end user with lubricating performance below the accepted standards. Recent publications have also suggested that it is not uncommon for sodium hydroxide used in the fuel refining industry to be present in fuel entering the supply chain downstream of the refinery. Due to the chemical nature of some lubricity additives there is clearly the possibility of…
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The Performance of a Modern Vehicle on a Variety of Alcohol-Gasoline Fuel Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP International Ltd-John Williams, Martin Gold, Rana Ali
Mahle Powertrain, Ltd.-Philip A. Stansfield, Andre Bisordi, Dave OudeNijeweme
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1272
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
An unmodified, conventionally fuelled, 2009 Class D vehicle with a 2.0L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine was operated on a range of gasoline, gasoline-ethanol and gasoline-butanol fuel blends over NEDC drive cycles and WOT power curves on a chassis dynamometer. Engine performance, engine management system parameters and vehicle out emissions were recorded to investigate the response of a current state-of-the-art technology vehicle to various alcohol fuel blends.The vehicle fired on all fuels and was capable of adapting its long term fuelling trim to cope with the increased fuel flow demand for alcohol fuels up to E85. Over the NEDC tests, the volumetric fuel consumption was very strongly related to the calorific content of the fuel. CO and NOx emissions were largely unaffected for the mid alcohol blends, but CO emissions decreased and NOx emissions increased significantly for the high alcohol fuels. THC emissions were largely unaffected. Particulate mass initially reduced as the alcohol content increased, but then increased significantly for the higher alcohols. This was likely due to the poor vaporisation during cold start.During the…
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A Numerical Study of the Effect of EGR on Flame Lift-off in n-Heptane Sprays Using a Novel PaSR Model Implemented in OpenFOAM

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chalmers Univ of Technology-Anne Kosters, Valeri Golovitchev
Volvo Technology Corp-Anders Karlsson
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0153
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on flame lift-off in non-stationary n-heptane sprays was studied under Diesel engine-like conditions using numerical simulation involving complex chemistry and a novel partially stirred reactor (PaSR) model of subgrid turbulence-chemistry interaction.The flame-stabilization mechanism is a result of complex physical and chemical interactions and cannot be described by a simplified theory. To leading order it is determined by the chemical reaction time at the leading edge, the turbulent diffusivity, and the flow velocity; so that there exists a balance between the local convection velocity and the triple-flame propagation speed. In this study of ignition and flame formation and stabilization processes, the VSB2 stochastic blob-and-bubble spray model was used in combination with the volume reactor fraction model (VRFM) implemented in OpenFOAM. The reacting volume fraction in the VRFM was determined by solving for mixture fraction, progress variable, and their variances in order to estimate the non-uniformities of the fluid cell; rather than simply taking the ratio of the mixing and chemistry time-scales. The chemistry is described by a reduced n-heptane…
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Particulate Emissions for LEV II Light-Duty Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

California Air Resources Board-Sherry Zhang, Wayne McMahon
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0442
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Since the mid-1990s, light-duty vehicles equipped with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been added to the vehicle fleet in increasing numbers. Compared to conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, GDI engines provide higher power output for the same size engine, higher fuel efficiency, and lower carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Due to the paucity of particulate matter (PM) emission data for light-duty gasoline vehicles in general and the increasing interest in these emissions relative to climate and air quality concerns, it is important to investigate PM emissions from current-generation GDI technologies. In this study, nine 2007-2010 light-duty GDI vehicles equipped with either wall-guided or spray-guided fuel injection systems were tested using California commercial gasoline fuel containing six percent ethanol by volume. Criteria pollutants including gaseous and PM emissions were measured over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) transient test cycle. Two real-time particle measurement systems were utilized to measure solid and total particle number emissions.Test results show that PM emissions for first-generation GDI vehicles tested are significantly higher than PFI vehicles certified to California Low Emission…
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A Study on NOx Emission Characteristics When Using Biomass-derived Diesel Alternative Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

LEVO-Akira Saito, Yutaka Takada
National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab.-Norifumi Mizushima, Susumu Sato, Daisuke Kawano
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1316
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Utilization of biofuels to vehicles is attracting attention globally from viewpoints of preventing global warming, effectively utilizing the resources, and achieving the local invigoration. Representative examples are bioethanol and biodiesel.This study highlights biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) in view of reducing greenhouse gas emission from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Biodiesel is FAME obtained through ester exchange reaction by adding methanol to oil, such as rapeseed oil, soybean oil, palm oil, etc. As already reported, FAME has fuel properties different from conventional diesel fuel, resulting in about 10% increase in NOx emission [1],[2],[3]. Suppression of such increase in the NOx emission during operating with biodiesel requires adjustment of the combustion control technology, such as fuel injection control and EGR, to the use of biodiesel. However, designing of vehicles and engines for dedicated use of biodiesel cannot be expected much because of the development cost. Besides, biodiesel suffers deterioration in low-temperature fluidity in cold climate, so that certain users use diesel fuel only in such cold climate. In this way, many issues must be solved before the…
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Modeling Species Inhibition and Competitive Adsorption in Urea-SCR Catalysts

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory-Maruthi Devarakonda, Russell Tonkyn, Jong Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1295
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Although the urea-SCR technology exhibits high NO reduction efficiency over a wide range of temperatures among the lean NO reduction technologies, further improvement in low-temperature performance is required to meet the future emission standards and to lower the system cost. In order to improve the catalyst technologies and optimize the system performance, it is critical to understand the reaction mechanisms and catalyst behaviors with respect to operating conditions. Urea-SCR catalysts exhibit poor NO reduction performance at low-temperature operating conditions (T ≺ 150°C). We postulate that the poor performance is either due to NH₃ storage inhibition by species like hydrocarbons or due to competitive adsorption between NH₃ and other adsorbates such as H₂O and hydrocarbons in the exhaust stream. In this paper we attempt to develop one-dimensional models to characterize inhibition and competitive adsorption in Fe-zeolite-based urea-SCR catalysts based on bench reactor experiments. We further use the competitive adsorption (CA) model to develop a standard SCR model based on previously identified kinetics. Simulation results indicate that the CA model predicts catalyst outlet NO and NH₃ concentrations…
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