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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Diesel Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel with 1-Butanol

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Kagoshima Univ.-Eiji Kinoshita, Kazunori Hamasaki, Ryota Imabayashi
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-32-0590
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In order to improve the fuel properties and diesel combustion of biodiesel, waste vegetable oil methyl ester (from rapeseed and soybean oil mixture) with 5-20 mass% 1-butanol (BWME) are tested using a DI diesel engine. The viscosity and pour point of BWME decrease by blending 1-butanol. There is no problem in the startability and stability of the engine operation with BWME. Thermal efficiency of BWME is almost the same as that of the gas oil. The smoke emission decreases with increasing 1-butanol although the HC and CO emissions increase due to the longer ignition delay. It is concluded that BWME can be utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. Furthermore, to improve the ignitability and exhaust emissions of biodiesel with 1-butanol, palm oil methyl ester (PME) with high cetane number is tested as a base fuel of the 1-butanl blend. When the 1-butanol content in PME/1-butanol (BPME) is 15 mass%, BPME has almost the same ignition delay and HC and CO emissions compared with the gas oil. From the experimental results, it is concluded that PME…
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Fuel Economy Durability - A Concept to be Considered for Motorcycle Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Lubrizol Japan Ltd.-Ananda Gajanayake
The Lubrizol Corp.-Brent Dohner, Alex Michlberger, George Szappanos
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-32-0545
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Motorcycle manufacturers have recognized that highly friction modified passenger car oils can be deleterious to clutch performance, leading to clutch slippage. To address this issue, a JASO specification for four-stroke motorcycle oils was developed in 1999, categorizing oils into high friction oils termed JASO MA and low friction oils termed JASO MB. The high friction oils were preferred for most motorcycles where the engine oil also lubricates the clutch and gears. New motorcycle transmission technologies have increased the number of dry clutch applications which has led to an increased demand for JASO MB oils to improve fuel efficiency. While JASO MB oils contain friction modifiers to improve initial fuel economy, the motorcycle specifications have not addressed the fuel economy durability of motorcycle oils. This paper will investigate the fuel economy durability of JASO MB quality oil in various ways in order to determine if the fuel economy benefit is maintained throughout the time the oil spends in the engine.
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A Study on Improvement of Diesel Spray Characteristics Fueled by Rape-seed Oil

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

The University of Tokushima-Azwan Sapit, Sho Nagayasu, Yasunori Tsuboi, Yuzuru Nada, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-32-0561
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
It is widely known that direct application of biomass fuels oil to DI diesel engines increases the carbon deposit in the engine. To minimize this effect, biomass fuel is subjected to transesterification process. Nevertheless, it is still desirable to use biomass fuel without transesterification. As diesel engine combustion and emissions are strongly dependent on spray characteristics and mixture formation, this study tries to clarify the spray characteristics of rape-seed oil (SVO) including spray structure, spray development, fuel evaporation, and droplets atomization.Optical observation reveals that rape-seed oil (SVO) spray forms a stick-like structure without branching structure at spray boundary and has heterogeneous density distribution in a liquid column at spray centerline. SVO spray hardly penetrates at exceedingly initial stage of injection, in particular at low injection pressure. Combination of high injection pressure and high ambient temperature lengthens spray penetration and produces branching structure and fine droplets. Macro-scale characteristics of SVO spray can be improved by applying reduction of nozzle sac-volume and scaling of nozzle hole-diameter accompanied with high injection pressure. However, it is hard to improve…
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Different Speed Limiting Strategies for 50cm3 Two-Wheelers and Their Impacts on Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Graz University of Technology-Jürgen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Roland Kirchberger
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-32-0587
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Usually the power output of 50 cm₃ two wheelers is higher than necessary to reach the maximum permitted vehicle speed, making engine power restriction necessary. This publication deals with different power restriction strategies for four-stroke engines and their effect on exhaust emissions. Alternative power limitation strategies like EGR and leaning were investigated and compared with the common method of spark advance reduction to show the optimization potential for this certain engine operation conditions. From these tests, a substantial set of data showing the pros and cons in terms of emissions, combustion stability and fuel economy could be derived for each speed limiting technique.
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Research on Clogging Mechanism of Multilayered Fuel Filters and Extension of Filter Life Span in Ethanol Blended Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Atsushi Ito, Tsubasa Ishii, Hideaki Ando, Fujio Umebayashi, Keita Kinoshita
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-32-0570
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Recently, the use of ethanol blended fuel is growing worldwide. Therefore, there is increasing needs for addressing issues relating to ethanol blended fuel use in gasoline engine fuel supply systems. In this paper, we focused on one of such issues, which is the reduced life of a multi-layered fuel filter used at inlet side of a fuel pump when it is used with ethanol blended fuel. In this study, we clarified that ethanol blended fuel tends to disperse dust particles contained in fuel to a greater extent than gasoline, and that it has a mechanism to accelerate clogging by concentrating the clogging only on the finest layer of the multi-layered filter. Also, in the process of clarifying this principle, we confirmed that dust particles dispersed by ethanol are coagulated when passing through the filter layers. Based on this, we developed a filter structure that increases dust particle capturing capability by combining dust particles into larger size before reaching the filter, thereby doubling the effective life of the filter for ethanol blended fuel.
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The Impact of Lubricant Viscosity and Additive Chemistry on Fuel Economy in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chevron Japan Ltd.-Y. Takeuchi
Chevron Oronite Company LLC-W. van Dam, T. Miller, G. M. Parsons
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2124
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
The heightened interest level in Fuel Economy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines the industry has seen over the last few years continues to be high, and is not likely to change. Lowering the fuel consumption of all internal combustion engines remains a priority for years to come, driven by economic, legislative, and environmental reasons.While it is generally assumed that lower viscosity grade lubricants offer fuel economy benefits, there is a lot of confusion about exactly what drives the fuel economy benefits. Fuel Economy claims in trade literature vary over a broad range and it is difficult for the end user to determine what to expect when a change in lubricant viscosity is adopted for a fleet of vehicles in a certain type of operation. This publication makes an attempt at clarifying a number of these uncertainties with the help of additional engine test data, and more extensive data analysis.In addition, a more extensive explanation is given for the impacts of base oil viscosity index, VI improver shear stability, and blend targets for the finished oil.…
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Development of an On-Board PM Sensor for the OBD System Based on an Electrochemical Polarization

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ritsumeikan Univ.-Yoshinobu Yoshihara, Takaya Suzuki, Keita Tominaga
Toyota Motor Corp.-Keiichiro Aoki, Hiroki Nishijima
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2059
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
An on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor, consisting of a gas-permeable electrochemical cell with a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte, was developed to assist the on-board diagnostics (OBD) system of a vehicle. Exhaust is pumped from the anode side to the cathode side and PM deposited on the anode is instantly oxidized by the catalytic effects of the metal component of the electrode at temperatures higher than 350°C. The PM oxidation reaction occurs at the three-phase boundary between the anode, electrolyte and gas phase, and causes a slight change in the bulk average oxygen concentration, which produces electrochemical polarization by the difference in oxygen partial pressures between the anode and cathode. The developed PM sensor has a detection limit of 2 mg/m₃, at which level will enable PM detection in the OBD system according to the EURO VI regulation.
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Frictional Properties of Molybdenum-Based Lubricating Oil Additives Using Green Chemistry

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chevron Japan Ltd.-Nobuo Ushioda
Chevron Oronite Company LLC-Gaurav Bhalla, Man Hon Tsang, David Gao, Qunlai Chen, William Ruhe
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2131
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a green process was developed to synthesize a novel molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂)-based friction modifier (FM) for improving fuel economy performance of lubricants. These new materials were synthesized using less hazardous elemental sulfur as opposed to other sulfur sources like hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) and carbon disulfide (CS₂). Using various bench and motoring friction torque tests, it was shown that friction reduction was benefited by utilizing low molecular weight organic backbone when designing molybdenum FMs. Also, it was shown that newly synthesized molybdenum-based FMs were comparable to other well-known MoS₂ precursors.
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Interrogating the surface: the effect of blended diesel fuels on lubricity

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

University of Birmingham-Ekarong Sukjit, Karl D. Dearn, Athanasios Tsolakis
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1940
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
The lubricating properties of two sustainable alternative diesels blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) were investigated. The candidate fuels were a biodiesel consisting of fatty acid methyl esters derived from rapeseed (RME) and gas-to-liquid (GTL). Lubricity tests were conducted on a high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The mating specimen surfaces were analysed using optical microscopy and profilometery for wear scar diameters and profiles respectively. Microscopic surface topography and deposit composition was evaluated using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Like all modern zero sulphur diesel fuel (ZSD), GTL fuels need a lubricity agent to meet modern lubricity specifications. It has been proven that GTL responds well to typical lubricity additives in the marketplace. The lubricity of ULSD, GTL and blends of these fuels were significantly improved with the addition of as little as 10% volume of RME, inducing more stable hydrodynamic conditions. Topography measurements showed the formation of a residue when RME was blended in the base fuels and composition analysis indicated a predominately carbon formation on the worn…
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Effect of different nozzle geometries using Pure Rapeseed Oil in a modern Diesel engine on combustion and exhaust emissions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Markus Luft, Uwe Wagner, Ulrich Spicher
Optik und Thermodynamik mbH-Fatih Sarikoc
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1947
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
Rapeseed oil can be a possible substitute for fossil fuel in Diesel engines. Due to different physical properties of rapeseed oil like higher viscosity and higher compressibility compared to diesel fuel, rapeseed oil cannot be easily used in conventional Diesel engines without modifications. Especially incomplete combustion leads to deposits in the combustion chamber and higher exhaust gas emissions. These unfavorable characteristics are caused primarily by insufficient mixture preparation.The adjustment of the injection system will improve the mixture preparation and the combustion of a Diesel engine, operated with rapeseed oil. The nozzle geometry is the main parameter of the whole injection system chain to realize a better combustion process and so higher efficiency and lower exhaust gas emissions.To elaborate the effect of different nozzle geometries on the combustion behavior and exhaust gas emissions, experimental investigations using a modern single-cylinder heavy-duty engine were performed. The influence of rapeseed oil on the exhaust gas emissions was investigated and compared to analyze the interaction of a high viscous fuel like rapeseed oil with the nozzle geometry of a modern…
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