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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Direct Injection of Diesel-Butane Blends in a Heavy Duty Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Eindhoven University of Technology-C.A.J. Leermakers, B. Van den Berge, C.C.M. Luijten, L.P.H. de Goey
Vialle Alternative Fuel Systems-S. Jaasma
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2400
Published 2011-12-06 by SAE International in United States
Increasing fuel prices keep bringing attention to alternative, cheaper fuels. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been well known for decades as an alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) passenger cars. More recently, aftermarket LPG systems were also introduced to Heavy Duty transport vehicles. These (port fuel) systems either vaporize the liquid fuel and then mix it with intake air, or inject fuel into the engine's intake ports.While this concept offers significant fuel cost reductions, for aftermarket certification and large-scale OEM use some concerns are present. Unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are known to be high because of premixed charge getting trapped into crevices and possibly being blown through during valve-overlap. Apart from the higher emission levels, this also limits fuel efficiency and therefore cost savings.Direct injection of LPG offers a solution to the aforementioned concerns by directing the fuel to the desired areas of the combustion chamber. To investigate the potential of this concept, diesel has been blended with liquid butane, in different ratios. These blends were directly injected into a heavy…
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Emissions and Combustion Behavior of a Bi-Fuel Gasoline and Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istituto Motori CNR-Maria Vittoria Prati, Reza Torbati, Maria Antonietta Costagliola
Seconda Università di Napoli-Antonio Mariani, Andrea Unich, Biagio Morrone
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0212
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
In the last ten years, the number of natural gas vehicles worldwide has grown rapidly with the biggest contribution coming from the Asia-Pacific and Latin America regions. As natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, the exhaust emissions from natural gas spark ignition vehicles are lower than those of gasoline powered vehicles. Moreover, natural gas is less affected by price fluctuations and its resources are more evenly widespread over the globe than to oil. However, as natural gas vehicles are usually bi-fuel gasoline and natural gas, the excellent knock resistant characteristics of natural gas cannot be completely exploited.This paper shows the results of an experimental activity performed on a passenger car fuelled alternatively by gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG). The vehicle has been tested on a chassis dynamometer over standard (NEDC) and real driving cycles (Artemis CADC), allowing to investigate a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder pressure has been measured by means of a spark plug with an integrated pressure transducer. By processing the acquired signal, a combustion analysis has been performed allowing…
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UV-Visible Spectroscopic Measurements of Dual-Fuel PCCI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0061
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
In this work, optical diagnostics were applied in a transparent DI diesel engine equipped with the head of Euro5 commercial engine and the last generation CR injection system. In order to realize the PCCI combustion the injection of neat bio-ethanol was performed in the intake manifold and European commercial diesel fuel was injected into the cylinder. Different amounts of bio-ethanol were injected in order to create PCCI combustion with high levels of pre-combustion mixing, and to ensure low equivalence ratio and low flame temperatures too. UV-Visible imaging and spectroscopic measurements were performed in the engine in order to investigate the autoignition of the charge and the combustion process, respectively. In particular, the detection of the species involved in the combustion, like OH, HCO, and CH, was performed. The relevance of the radicals and species on PCCI were evaluated and compared with the data from thermodynamic analysis.
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Real-World Performance of a CNG Heavy Duty Articulated Truck

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Vienna University of Technology-Luis Cachon, Ernst Pucher
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0192
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
In this study the performance of a monofuel compressed natural gas articulated truck was investigated under real-world conditions. To analyze the CNG vehicle due to fuel consumption and exhaust emissions a representative road-test route was conducted, including sections with significantly different driving conditions. Moreover, driving tests on freeway under higher load were carried out.As experimental equipment, a new ultra compact on-board system measured the in-car exhaust mass emissions in real time. Every second, a full dataset of CO₂, CO, HC and NOx emission rates was provided. The real-world emission measurements are based on a modal analysis of the emission concentrations in the tailpipe of the vehicle. The exhaust gas mass flow is calculated from the air mass flow and the gas components with a real-time reaction model. In combination with the vehicle speed, the emission rates in g/s are then calculated in gram per kilometer. Furthermore, the fuel consumption in g/s or kg/100 km is calculated with the carbon balance method according to the EU Commission directive 1999/100/EC.The gained distance related emissions and the derived…
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Investigation of LEV-III Aftertreatment Designs

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chrysler Group LLC-Michael Zammit, Jeffrey Wuttke
Umicore Autocat USA Inc.-Douglas Ball, Carlos Buitrago
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0301
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Proposed LEV-III emission level will require improvements in NMOG, CO and NOx emissions as measured over FTP and US06 emission cycles. Incremental improvements in washcoat technologies, cold start calibration and catalyst system design are required to develop a cost effective solution set. New catalyst technologies demonstrated both lower HC and NOx emissions with 25% less platinum group metals (PGM). FTP and US06 emissions were measured on a 4-cylinder 2.4L application which compares a close-coupled converter and close-coupled + underfloor converter systems. A PGM placement study was performed with the close-coupled converter system employing these new catalyst technologies. Emissions results suggest that the placement of PGM is critical in minimizing emissions and PGM costs.
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Oxidation Stability, Engine Performance and Emissions Investigations of Karanja, Neem and Jatropha Biodiesel and Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur-Deepak Khurana , Avinash Kumar Agarwal
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0617
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Poor oxidation stability is the central problem associated with the commercial acceptance of the biodiesel. The EU standard (EN14214) specifies a minimum value of 6 h for biodiesel induction period at 110°C, measured with Rancimat instrument. Most of the freshly prepared biodiesel generally have lower induction periods than prescribed by the standards. Anti-oxidants are therefore added to enhance the oxidation/ storage stability of biodiesel. Oxidation is an exothermic process, and the reaction heat evolved makes it possible to use thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA).In the present study, the oxidation stability of methyl esters derived from Karanja oil and Neem oil, stabilized with anti-oxidant pyrogalol (PY) was studied by DSC. Onset temperature of freshly prepared Karanja biodiesel (KOME) and Neem biodiesel (NOME) was observed to be 148 and 153°C respectively. The stability increases with increasing anti-oxidant dosage. A comparative analysis of oxidation stability of biodiesel/diesel blends was done on biodiesel derived from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) oil using Rancimat instrument. Jatropha biodiesel (JOME)/ diesel blends were observed to be most stable…
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The Effect of Cetane Improvers and Biodiesel on Diesel Particulate Matter Size

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

West Virginia Univ.-John Nuszkowski, Kevin Flaim, Gregory Thompson
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0330
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDE), because of their widespread use and reputation of expelling excessive soot, have frequently been held responsible for excessive amounts of overall environmental particulate matter (PM). PM is a considerable contributor to air pollution, and a subject of primary concern to health and regulatory agencies worldwide. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided PM emissions regulations and standards of measurement techniques since the 1980's. PM standards set forth by the EPA for HDDEs are based only on total mass, instead of size and/or concentration. The European Union adopted a particle number emission limit, and it may influence the U.S. EPA to adopt particle number or size limits in the future.The purpose of this research was to study the effects biodiesel blended fuel and cetane improvers have on particle size and number. In addition, a special interest was taken into the variations in diesel particulate matter (DPM) measurements due to the fuel alteration. The Cambustion DMS-500, a fast particle spectrometer, was used to continuously sample diesel aerosol from a HDDE test-cell dilution…
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Analysis of Performance and Emissions of an Automotive Euro 5 Diesel Engine Fuelled with B30 from RME and JME

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo, Carlo Ferraro, Davide Vezza, Theodoros Vlachos
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0328
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The effects of using a B30 blend of ultra-low sulfur diesel and two different Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) obtained from both Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine on both full load performance and part load emissions have been evaluated in this paper.In particular the effects on engine torque were firstly analyzed, for both a standard ECU calibration (i.e., without any special tuning for the different fuel characteristics) and for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration obtained by properly increasing the injected fuel quantities to compensate for the lower LHV of the B30: with the latter, the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be observed with the B30 blend too, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits.Moreover, the effects of the two different 30% vol. blends on brake specific fuel consumption and on engine-out exhaust emissions (CO₂, CO, HC, NOx and smoke) were also evaluated at 6 different…
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Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Zhenhong Lin, David Greene
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0618
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation…
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High Cetane Fuel Combustion Performance in a Conventional Military Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Naval Academy-Jim Cowart, Matthew Carr, Pat Caton, Lars Stoulig, Dianne Luning-Prak, Andrew Moore, Leonard Hamilton
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0334
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Synthetic diesel fuels from Fischer-Tropsch or hydrotreating processes have high cetane numbers with respect to conventional diesel fuel. This study investigates diesel combustion characteristics with these high cetane fuels. A military jet fuel (JP-5 specification), a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic diesel, and normal hexadecane (C16), a pure component fuel with defined cetane number of 100, are compared with operation of conventional military diesel fuel (F-76 specification). The fuels are tested in a AM General GEP HMMWV engine, an indirect-injection, largely mechanically-controlled diesel engine. Hundreds of thousands of these are in current use and are projected to be in service for many years to come. Experimental testing showed that satisfactory operation could be achieved across the speed-load operating map even for the highest cetane fuel (normal hexadecane). The JP-5, FT, and C16 fuels all showed later injection timing. Despite having a significantly higher cetane number, the FT fuel showed a longer ignition delay, probably due to the lower density of this synthetic fuel, which leads to slower penetration into the chamber. Thus, ignition delay was not found…
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