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On the Main Factors Governing Auto-Ignition Phenomenon of Alcohol Spray – A Study from the View Point of Fuel Properties –

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sojo University-Hironori Saitoh, Kouji Uchida
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1931
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This study deals with the development of compression ignition DI alcohol engine with higher efficiency and lower emissions comparing to the conventional internal combustion engines. In order to establish such high performance alcohol engines, development of controlled ignition technology is required. This paper focuses on the main factors that govern auto-ignition phenomenon of alcohol spray from the view point of fuel properties. The reason of poor auto-ignition quality of alcohol spray was theoretically and experimentally revealed. That is difficulty of simultaneous attainments of ignition-suitable concentration and temperature in a spray mixture formation due to their smaller stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and larger latent heat for evaporation in comparison with conventional diesel fuels.
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Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether - A Review of the Technical Literature

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

European Fuel Oxygenates Association-Graeme Wallace
Evonik Oxeno-Ekkehard Schulte-Körne
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1951
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) has been used as a high octane blending component since the early 1990's. However the strong interest in renewable energy has led to a dramatic increase in its use. This has also resulted in a substantial number of technical studies being carried out around the world to assess its performance with respect to vehicle performance, distribution system compatibility, environmental impact and toxicology. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, up to date review of these data. Particular focus will be given to its positive impact on CO2 emissions.
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Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-Dan Styles, Eric W. Curtis, Nitia Ramesh
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-C. Scott Sluder, John M. E. Storey
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1939
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature. Thermal properties of fouled layer are calculated based on mass fraction of deposited soot and hydrocarbons. The experiments with the same conditions ran to validate the model. Hot EGR gases flow through the inner pipe…
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Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fueled by Biodiesel Derived from Different Vegetable Oils and the Characteristics of Combustion of Single Droplets

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Niigata Institute of Technology-Yasufumi Yoshimoto
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1812
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder DI diesel engine with biodiesel fuel (BDF) derived from unused rape, soybean, and palm oils. Compared with ordinary gas oil, the BDFs showed similar brake thermal efficiencies, better ignitability, and considerably reduced smoke densities, while the NOx emissions were somewhat higher. The injection characteristics and engine performance were also examined using neat Methyl Oleate (OME) and OME-Methyl Palmitate (PME) blends. Basic experiments of suspended single droplets were performed to evaluate the differences in ignition, combustion, and soot formation characteristics of these fuels. The results showed shorter ignition lags and combustion durations for the OME droplets blended with PME and the soot formation rate with OME is about 13% that of gas oil droplets.
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Unregulated Harmful Substances in Exhaust Gas from Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Fumihiro Taga
Hokkaido University-Hideyuki Ogawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1870
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The volatile organic compounds (VOC) from diesel engines, including formaldehyde and benzene, are concerned and remain as unregulated harmful substances. The substances are positively correlated with THC emissions, but the VOC and aldehyde compounds at light load or idling conditions are more significant than THC. When coolant temperatures are low at light loads, there are notable increases in formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and with lower coolant temperatures the increase in aldehydes is more significant than the increase in THC. When using ultra high EGR so that the intake oxygen content decreases below 10%, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene increase significantly while smokeless and ultra low Nox combustion is possible.
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Multiple Injection Strategy in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine with Entrained Diesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

University of British Columbia-B. Scott Brown, Steven N. Rogak
Westport Innovations-Sandeep Munshi
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1954
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A new fuel injector prototype for heavy-duty engines has been developed to use direct-injection natural gas with small amounts of entrained diesel as an ignition promoter. This “co-injection” is quite different from other dual-fuel engine systems, where diesel and gas are introduced separately.Reliable compression-ignition can be attained, but two injections per engine cycle are needed to minimize engine knock. In the present paper the interactions between diesel injection mass, combustion timing, engine load, and engine speed are investigated experimentally in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine.For the tests with this injector, ignition delay ranged from 1.2–4.0 ms (of which injector delay accounts for ~0.9 ms). Shorter ignition delays occurred at higher diesel injection masses and advanced combustion timing. At ignition delays shorter than 2.0 ms, knock intensity decreased with increasing ignition delay. Ignition delays longer than 2.0 ms indicated that the pilot gas injection did not ignite before large amounts of fuel were injected with the second injection; intense knock could occur in these cases.At low load, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (tHC) emissions were anti-correlated…
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Effects of Ethanol Content on Gasohol PFI Engine Wide-Open-Throttle Operation

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Honda R&D Co. Ltd-Kaoru Ishii
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Kenneth Kar, Wai Cheng
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1907
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with λ =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due to fuel evaporation. The decrease in NOx emission and exhaust temperature could be explained by the change in adiabatic flame temperature of the mixture. The fuel knock resistance improved significantly with the gasohol so that ignition could be timed at a value much closer or at MBT timing. Changing from 0% to 100% ethanol in the fuel, this combustion phasing improvement led to a 20% increase in NIMEP and 8 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency at 1500 rpm. At 2000 rpm, where knocking was less severe, the improvement was about half (10% increase in NIMEP and 4 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency). Because there was no significant change in the end gas temperature in these experiments, the gasohol knock resistance was attributed solely to the ignition chemistry of the ethanol.
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US and EU Market Biodiesel Blends Quality Review – An OEM Perspective

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

General Motors Powertrain-Pat Y. Geng, Andrew E Buczynsky
SGS Germany GmbH-Anke Konzack
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1850
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel has become a major alternative fuel for automotive applications demonstrated by its increasing presence in the market place. This paper summarizes test results for recently collected retail samples of biodiesel (B100) and blended biodiesel from the U.S. and the European Union to provide a snap shot of current fuel quality in each market. Properties reported included biodiesel content, oxidation stability, acid number, water, metals, and glycerin content. For B100, only total contamination measured as particulates was significantly lower for the EU than the U.S. For blends containing up to 5% biodiesel, there were significant differences between the U.S. and the EU in sulfur content, oxidation stability (Rancimat), cetane number, and cloud point. For blends higher than B5, present only in the U.S., pump labeling was found to be a poor indicator of biodiesel content. Also, the results showed that Karl Fischer water limit could be substituted for water and sediment without hardship to the industry. While average quality in the EU was generally better than in the U.S., the spread of values in the…
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Measuring Diesel Ash Emissions and Estimating Lube Oil Consumption Using a High Temperature Oxidation Method

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

University of Minnesota-David Gladis, Winthrop Watts, David Kittelson
University of Minnesota and Humboldt State University-James Apple
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1843
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine ash emissions are composed of the non-combustible portions of diesel particulate matter derived mainly from lube oil, and over time can degrade diesel particulate filter performance. This paper presents results from a high temperature oxidation method (HTOM) used to estimate ash emissions, and engine oil consumption in real-time. Atomized lubrication oil and diesel engine exhaust were used to evaluate the HTOM performance.Atomized fresh and used lube oil experiments showed that the HTOM reached stable particle size distributions and concentrations at temperatures above 700°C. The HTOM produced very similar number and volume weighted particle size distributions for both types of lube oils. The particle number size distribution was unimodal, with a geometric mean diameter of about 23 nm. The volume size distribution had a geometric volume mean diameter of about 65 nm.Inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the ash content of different lube oils, revealing the differences in elemental compositions of ash for a fresh lube oil and an used lube oil; the most notable changes were a 166% increase in…
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Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

University of California – Berkeley-Gregory E. Bogin, J. Hunter Mack, Robert W. Dibble
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1805
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Ion sensors have been shown to be a low-cost and robust method of measuring start of combustion (SOC) in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The combustion event in an HCCI engine is governed by temperature sensitive chemical-kinetics and is highly fuel dependent. Autoignition variability between various fuels can also affect emissions, efficiency, and overall operating range of the HCCI engine. Ion sensors (i.e. modified spark-plugs) can be used pragmatically to detect the combustion event for various fuels in HCCI engines over a wide range of operating conditions. An investigation of the ion currents produced from the combustion of gasoline, ethanol, and n-heptane in a 1.9L 4-cylinder VW TDI diesel engine (converted to run in HCCI mode) is conducted over a range of equivalence ratios, intake temperatures, and intake pressures. Gasoline, ethanol and n-heptane have diverse autoignition characteristics which affect the overall operation of the HCCI engine. Experiments show that detecting ions during combustion is a sufficient and reliable technique used in measuring SOC for various fuels in a HCCI engine. The ion currents for…
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