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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Identification and Quantification of Phosphate Ester-Based Hydraulic Fluid in Jet Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Israeli Air Force, Israel-Diana Stamker Gertopski, Konstantin Tartakovsky, Moshe Rabaev
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-01-0003
Published 2019-03-13 by SAE International in United States
Phosphate ester-based hydraulic fluids are commonly used in aviation, due to their fire-resistant properties. However, contamination of jet fuel with hydraulic fluid may cause serious engine failure, hot corrosion of metals, and swelling of elastomer and polymer seals. Identifying and quantifying hydraulic fluids in jet fuels using chromatography is challenging since common hydraulic fluids, such as ExxonMobil™ HyJet™ V and Skydrol™ LD-4, are composed of tri-butyl phosphate, the main peak of which overlaps with peaks from jet fuels in chromatograms. In this work, three techniques to separate and differentiate the jet fuel peaks from the tri-butyl phosphate peaks were developed. Two methods are based on a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure followed by identification and quantification, which is carried out using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer or a flame ionization detector. The third technique is single-staged, where the separation and analysis are carried out by a gas chromatograph equipped with a polar column and a mass spectrometer. Lowest level of detection reached was 0.1 ppm of tri-butyl phosphate in jet fuel, 10…
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Rapid Methodology to Simultaneous Quantification of Different Antioxidants in Biodiesel Using Infrared Spectrometry and Multivariate Calibration

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Brazil-Luciano Nascimento Batista, Viviane F. Mello, Maurício G. Fonseca, Werickson F.C. Rocha
National Institute of Technology, Brazil-Claudete N. Kunigami
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-01-0004
Published 2019-03-21 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this work is to quantify three different antioxidants in biodiesel - Santoflex, baynox, and tocopherol-using Middle Infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics. For the construction of the models, 28 samples containing an antioxidant in the range of 0.1 to 500 mg/kg in biodiesel were used. We developed three models based on PLS 1 multivariate calibration method to quantify each of the three antioxidants separately and a model based on PLS 2 method to quantify simultaneously all the antioxidants. All models were compared to the values of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and validation (RMSEP). For the baynox, santoflex, and tocopherol antioxidants quantification using PLS 1, the values of RMSEC and RMSEP were 37.2, 18.8, 9.0 mg/kg, and 26.7, 21.1, 68.6 mg/kg, respectively. In simultaneous determination of these three compounds (tocopherol, santoflex, and baynox) using PLS 2, the values observed by RMSEC and RMSEP were 7.7, 1.1, 7.3 mg/kg and 29.9, 4.2, 28.4 mg/kg, respectively. The methodology described here is fast, non-destructive, and can be used for quality control of antioxidants present…
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Experimental Study of Ignition Delay, Combustion, and NO Emission Characteristics of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Norway-Vladimir Krivopolianskii, Karl Oskar P. Bjørgen, David Emberson, Sergey Ushakov, Vilmar Æsøy, Terese Løvås
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-01-0002
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States
In this article, a comparative study of hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and diesel was performed in two constant volume combustion rigs and an optical accessible compression-ignited chamber (OACIC). Ignition, combustion, and nitric oxide (NO) emissions were studied under constant ambient gas density of 16.4 kg/m3, 21% vol oxygen concentration, and two different injection pressures of 800 and 1000 bar. Emission of NO was measured only in the OACIC, while a line-of-sight soot temperature distribution by applying two-color pyrometry was investigated in both setups. In general, the HVO as alternative fuel showed shorter ignition delay and less NO emission than diesel for both injection pressures. Due to difference in the molecular structure, soot temperature of biofuel flames had narrower temperature spectrum than conventional fuel. Moreover, this study reveals the significance of wall-jet interaction for utilization of the biofuel. The HVO was not found to bounce off the wall as conventional diesel, which led to relatively long flame residence time for the tested biofuel. Based on the revealed results, it is clear that a diesel engine operated…
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Diminishing Benefits of Federal Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) Compared to Conventional Gasoline (CG)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Denver University, USA-Gary Bishop
Desert Research Institute, USA-S. Kent Hoekman, Amber Leland
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-01-0001
Published 2018-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The Federal reformulated gasoline (RFG) program originated with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments to address high ozone and air toxics levels in major urban areas. These areas include portions of 17 states and represent approximately 30% of the total U.S. gasoline volume. Initially, formulation changes were limited to addition of oxygen and reductions in benzene and fuel Reid vapor pressure (RVP) levels. These reformulations were intended to meet minimum emissions reduction targets for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) when compared to a 1990 baseline gasoline in a “1990 technology” vehicle fleet. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) developed two computational models, the Simple Model in 1995 and the Complex Model in 1998, for use in demonstrating compliance with the regulations. This article reviews the derivation and evolution of the RFG program. Initially, RFG’s emissions reduction benefits compared to conventional gasoline (CG) resulted primarily from differences in fuel sulfur levels, benzene content, and RVP. However, due to other regulatory changes over the past two decades, the compositions…
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