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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Andhra University-I.N. Niranjan Kumar
Andhra University and Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering-K.N.D. Malleswara Rao
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-02-0010.1
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Improvement in DCT Shaft Lubrication through CFD Method

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Geely Powertrain Research Institute, China-Ting Su
Hebei University of Technology, China-Hai Liu, Libin Zang
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-03-0011
Published 2018-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Dual-clutch transmission (DCT) output shaft 1 (OS1) mount position is higher than the transmission lubricant level. Needle bearings and idler gears on OS1-insufficient lubrication issues and the transmission lubrication system were investigated. In the design model, the transmission housing lubrication channel and oil guide component design were studied. For numerical analysis, the STAR-CCM+ software was used to simulate transmission internal complex oil-gas multiphase transient flow morphology that monitored the four bore oil churning volumes of OS1. Finally, lubrication test results affirm simulation predictions that idler gears, needle bearings, and synchronizer rings on OS1 obtain sufficient lubrication provided that a reliable method to inspect lubrication design functions is available.
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The Impacts of Pd in BEA Zeolite on Decreasing Cold-Start NMOG Emission of an E85 Fuel Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Research and Innovation Center, Ford Motor Co., USA-Lifeng Xu, Jason Lupescu, Giovanni Cavataio, Kevin Guo, Hungwen Jen
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-03-0013
Published 2018-10-25 by SAE International in United States
In the development of hydrocarbon (HC) traps for E85 fuel vehicle emission control, the addition of palladium (Pd) to BEA zeolite was studied for trapping and decreasing cold-start ethanol emissions. BEA zeolite after a laboratory aging at 750°C for 25 hours released nearly all of the trapped ethanol as unconverted ethanol at low temperature, and some ethene was released at a higher temperature by a dehydration reaction. The addition of Pd to BEA zeolite showed a decrease in the release of unconverted ethanol emissions even after the lab aging. The release of methane (CH4), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and CO2 from Pd-BEA zeolite during desorption (temperature programmed desorption (TPD)) demonstrated that multiple ethanol reaction mechanisms were involved including dehydrogenation and decomposition reactions. The amount of Pd loading in BEA zeolite showed a diminished benefit toward eliminating unconverted ethanol release as the Pd loading increased above 0.2 wt% zeolite. Vehicle emission (with E85 fuel) test results also confirmed the benefits of Pd in zeolite in reducing cold-start non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions.
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Uncertainty Assessment of Octane Index Framework for Stoichiometric Knock Limits of Co-Optima Gasoline Fuel Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sandia National Laboratories, USA-David Vuilleumier, Xun Huan, Tiernan Casey, Magnus Sjöberg
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-03-0014
Published 2018-10-25 by SAE International in United States
This study evaluates the applicability of the Octane Index (OI) framework under conventional spark ignition (SI) and “beyond Research Octane Number (RON)” conditions using nine fuels operated under stoichiometric, knock-limited conditions in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, supported by Monte Carlo-type simulations which interrogate the effects of measurement uncertainty. Of the nine tested fuels, three fuels are “Tier III” fuel blends, meaning that they are blends of molecules which have passed two levels of screening, and have been evaluated to be ready for tests in research engines. These molecules have been blended into a four-component gasoline surrogate at varying volume fractions in order to achieve a RON rating of 98. The molecules under consideration are isobutanol, 2-butanol, and diisobutylene (which is a mixture of two isomers of octene). The remaining six fuels were research-grade gasolines of varying formulations. The DISI research engine was used to measure knock limits at heated and unheated intake temperature conditions, as well as throttled and boosted intake pressures, all at an engine speed of 1400 rpm. The tested…
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Open Access

Limitations of Monoolein in Simulating Water-in-Fuel Characteristics of EN590 Diesel Containing Biodiesel in Water Separation Testing

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Parker Hannifin Manufacturing (UK) Ltd., UK-Umer Farooq
University of Huddersfield, UK-Parikshit Goswami
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-03-0012
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
In modern diesel fuel a proportion of biodiesel is blended with petro-diesel to reduce environmental impacts. However, it can adversely affect the operation of nonwoven coalescing filter media when separating emulsified water from diesel fuel. This can be due to factors such as increasing water content in the fuel, a reduction in interfacial tension (IFT) between the water and diesel, the formation of more stable emulsions, and the generation of smaller water droplets. Standard water/diesel separation test methods such as SAE J1488 and ISO 16332 use monoolein, a universal surface-active agent, to simulate the effects of biodiesel on the fuel properties as part of water separation efficiency studies. However, the extent to which diesel/monoolein and diesel/biodiesel blends are comparable needs to be elucidated if the underlying mechanisms affecting coalescence of very small water droplets in diesel fuel with a low IFT are to be understood. To address this challenge, test fuels composed of reference diesel (REF diesel)/biodiesel and REF diesel/monoolein were experimentally studied to determine fuel properties such as IFT, water content, and dynamic viscosity,…